Soil organic matter (SOM) play an important role in soil ecology and global carbon dynamic. As one of the most sever and irreversible land use change, urbanization could alter the regional carbon storage and composition pattern. However how urbanization influence on SOM is still unclear. In this study, we collected soil samples from highly urbanized area of Beijing, China and explore the quantity and quality variations of SOM by using fluorescence spectroscopy in combine with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). The results shown that the soil physic-chemical properties were shaped by urbanization. Comparing to nature soil, moisture content, total organic carbon and total nitrogen in urban and rural soil significantly decreased. The fluorescence spectrum demonstrated that SOM quality was also altered by urbanization induced environmental changes. Five fluorescent compounds in SOM was identified by PARAFAC model and three of them was assigned to humic-like substances. The fluorescence intensity of humic-like substances in nature land was significantly higher than of rural and urban land, meanwhile microbial related substance accumulated in urban land in comparison with rural and nature land. The multivariate analyses further reveal the relationship between soil physic-chemical properties and SOM composition. These results suggest that urbanization could not only decrease the SOM quantity but also change the SOM composition. The SOM loss caused by urbanization was mainly consist of humic-like substance loss. Besides urbanization also stimulate the accumulation of microbial related substance in SOM which highlight the importance of microorganism is SOM dynamic.
Soil archaea plays a vital role in the functioning of dryland ecosystems, which are expected to expand and get drier in the future as a result of climate change. However, compared with bacteria and fungi, the impacts of increasing aridity on archaea in these ecosystems remain largely unknown. Here, soil samples were collected along a typical aridity gradient in semi-arid regions in Inner Mongolia, China, to investigate whether and how the increasing aridity affects archaeal communities. The results showed that archaeal richness linearly decreased with increasing aridity. After partialling out the effects of soil properties based on partial least squares regression, the significant aridity-richness relationship vanished. The composition of archaeal communities was distributed according to the aridity gradient. These variations were largely driven by the changes in the relative abundance of Thaumarchaeota, Euryarchaeota and unclassified phyla. Niche-based processes were predominant in structuring the observed archaeal aridity-related pattern. The structural equation models further showed that aridity indirectly reduced archaeal richness through improving soil electrical conductivity (EC) and structured community composition by changing soil total nitrogen (TN). These results suggested that soil salinization and N-losses might be important mechanisms underlying the increasing aridity-induced alterations in archaeal communities, and highlighted the importance of soil niches in mediating the indirect impacts of increasing aridity on archaea.