Aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) play a crucial role in mitigating the methane emission from lake ecosystems to the atmosphere. However, the distribution of methanotrophic community in shallow and eutrophic lake and its influential factors remain essentially unclear. The present study investigated sediment methanotrophic microorganisms at different sites in eutrophic freshwater Dianchi Lake (China) in two different seasons. The abundance, diversity, and structure of sediment methanotrophic community showed a profound spatial and seasonal variation. The pmoA gene copy number in lake sediments ranged from 8.71 +/- 0.49 x 10(4) to 2.09 +/- 0.03 x 10(7) copies per gram of dry sediment. Sediment methanotrophic communities were composed of Methylococcus and Methylobacter (type I methanotrophs) and Methylosinus (type II methanotrophs), while type I MOB usually outnumbered type II MOB. Moreover, ammonia nitrogen was found to be a potential determinant of methanotrophic community structure in Dianchi Lake.
Water diversion has been applied increasingly to promote the exchange of lake water and to control eutrophication of lakes. The accelerated water exchange and mass transport by water diversion can usually be represented by water age. But the responses of water quality after water diversion is still disputed. The reliability of using water age for evaluating the effectiveness of water diversion projects in eutrophic lakes should be thereby explored further. Lake Dianchi, a semi-closed plateau lake in China, has suffered severe eutrophication since the 1980s, and it is one of the three most eutrophic lakes in China. There was no significant improvement in water quality after an investment of approximately 7.7 billion USD and numerous project efforts from 1996 to 2015. After the approval of the Chinese State Council, water has been transferred to Lake Dianchi to alleviate eutrophication since December 2013. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model and eight scenarios were developed in this study to quantity the influence of this water diversion project on water quality in Lake Dianchi. The model results showed that (a) Water quality (TP, TN, and Chla) could be improved by 13.5-32.2%, much lower than the approximate 50% reduction in water age; (b) Water exchange had a strong positive relationship with mean TP, and mean Chla had exactly the same response to water diversion as mean TN; (c) Water level was more beneficial for improving hydrodynamic and nutrient concentrations than variation in the diverted inflowing water volume; (d) The water diversion scenario of doubling the diverted inflow rate in the wet season with the water level of 1886.5 m and 1887 m in the remaining months was the best water diversion mode for mean hydrodynamics and TP, but the scenario of doubling the diverted inflow rate in the wet season with 1887 m throughout the year was optimum for mean TN and Chla; (e) Water age influenced the effectiveness of water diversion on the improvement in TP, but not in TN and Chla. Therefore, water age solely could not be used to evaluate the restoration of water quality in a eutrophic lake, because geobiochemical processes played a more important role in the growth of algae than did water exchange in Lake Dianchi. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The present study investigated the effects of lead on the morphological structure, physical and chemical properties, wastewater treatment performance and microbial community structure of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). The results showed that at Pb2+ concentration of 1mg/L, the mixed liquid suspended solids decreased, the settling velocity increased and the sludge volume index increased sharply. Meanwhile, AGS began to disintegrate and show an irregular shape. In terms of wastewater treatment in an SBR, the phosphorus removal rate was affected only until the Pb2+ concentration was up to 1mg/L. The NH4+- N removal efficiency began to decline when the Pb2+ concentration increased to 6mg/L, while the removal of chemical oxygen demand increased slightly within the Pb2+ concentration range of 1-6mg/L. Significant changes were observed in the microbial community structure, especially the dominant bacteria. Compared to the Pb2+ accumulation on the sludge, the Pb2+ concentration in the aqueous phase played a more important role in the performance and microbial community of AGS in SBRs.
Phosphorus (P) is viewed as one limiting factor for phytoplankton growth in freshwater lakes. Simple budget models are very efficient for cross-lakes comparisons, while neglecting key distinction between algal P and other forms. Here, a phosphorus budget model was developed to balance between process resolution and cross-system applicability, in which lake total phosphorus (TP) was divided into algal-bound P and other fractions. The model was tested for six lakes on the Yunnan Plateau, China and the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm of Bayesian hierarchical inference was employed for parameters estimation. The model results showed that (a) both algal species composition and P loading are key factors that influence the efficiency of converting phosphorus into algal P; (b) variability of the settling velocity of non-algal P and algal P decreases with increasing TP concentrations, representing a lower capacity for restoration; and (c) settling velocity declined exponentially with the increase of trophic state index, indicating a potential rapid rise of P removal rates during eutrophication restoration. Two conceptual models were then proposed to identify the prior countermeasures for eutrophication restoration in the lakes: (a) for Conceptual Model II, e.g. Lake Lugu, increasing the physical settling of phosphorus should be given priority to; (b) for Conceptual Model I, including the other five lakes, increasing the biological settling of phosphorus should be paid extra attention. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Both ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) can play important roles in the microbial oxidation of ammonia nitrogen in freshwater lake, but information on spatiotemporal variation in water column and sediment community structure is still limited. Additionally, the drivers of the differences between sediment and water assemblages are still unclear. The present study investigated the variation of AOA and AOB communities in both water columns and sediments of eutrophic freshwater Dianchi Lake. The abundance, diversity, and structure of both planktonic and sediment ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in Dianchi Lake showed the evident changes with sampling site and time. In both water columns and sediments, AOB amoA gene generally outnumbered AOA, and the AOB/AOA ratio was much higher in summer than in autumn. The total AOA amoA abundance was relatively great in autumn, while sediment AOB was relatively abundant in summer. Sediment AOA amoA abundance was likely correlated with ammonia nitrogen (rs = 0.963). The AOB/AOA ratio in lake sediment was positively correlated with total phosphorus (rs = 0.835), while pH, dissolved organic carbon, and ammonia nitrogen might be the key driving forces for the AOB/AOA ratio in lake water. Sediment AOA and AOB diversity was correlated with nitrate nitrogen (rs = -0.786) and total organic carbon (rs = 0.769), respectively, while planktonic AOB diversity was correlated with ammonia nitrogen (rs = 0.854). Surface water and sediment in the same location had a distinctively different microbial community structure. In addition, sediment AOB community structure was influenced by total phosphorus, while total phosphorus might be a key determinant of planktonic AOB community structure.
Microorganisms are involved in a variety of biogeochemical processes in natural environments. The differences between bacterial communities in freshwaters and upslope soils remain unclear. The present study investigated the bacterial distribution in a plateau freshwater lake, Erhai Lake (southwestern China), and its upslope soils. Illumina MiSeq sequencing illustrated high bacterial diversity in lake sediments and soils. Sediment and soil bacterial communities were mainly composed of Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi and Planctomycetes. However, a distinctive difference in bacterial community structure was found between soil and sediment ecosystems. Water content, nitrogen and pH affected the distribution of the bacterial community across Erhai Lake and its upslope soils. Moreover, the soil bacterial community might also be shaped by plant types. This work could provide some new insights into plateau aquatic and terrestrial microbial ecology. (C) 2015 The Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Both planktonic and sediment bacterial assemblages are the important components of freshwater lake ecosystems. However, their spatiotemporal shift and the driving forces remain still elusive. Eutrotrophic Dianchi Lake and mesotrophic Erhai Lake are the largest two freshwater lakes on the Yunnan Plateau (southwestern China). The present study investigated the spatiotemporal shift in both planktonic and sediment bacterial populations in these two plateau freshwater lakes at different trophic status. For either lake, both water and sediment samples were collected from six sampling locations in spring and summer. Bacterioplankton community abundance in Dianchi Lake generally far outnumbered that in Erhai Lake. Sediment bacterial communities in Erhai Lake were found to have higher richness and diversity than those in Dianchi Lake. Sediments had higher bacterial community richness and diversity than waters. The change patterns for both planktonic and sediment bacterial communities were lake-specific and season-specific. Either planktonic or sediment bacterial community structure showed a distinct difference between in Dianchi Lake and in Erhai Lake, and an evident structure difference was also found between planktonic and sediment bacterial communities in either of these two lakes. Planktonic bacterial communities in both Dianchi Lake and Erhai Lake mainly included Proteobacteria (mainly Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria), Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Firmicutes, while sediment bacterial communities were mainly represented by Proteobacteria (mainly Beta- and Deltaproteobacteria), Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi, Nitrospirae, Acidobacteria, and Chloroflexi. Trophic status could play important roles in shaping both planktonic and sediment bacterial communities in freshwater lakes.
In either eutrophic Dianchi Lake or mesotrophic Erhai Lake, the abundance, diversity, and structure of archaeaplankton communities in spring were different from those in summer. In summer, archaeaplankton abundance generally decreased in Dianchi Lake but increased in Erhai Lake, while archaeaplankton diversity increased in both lakes. These two lakes had distinct archaeaplankton community structure. Archaeaplankton abundance was influenced by organic content, while trophic status determined archaeaplankton diversity and structure. Moreover, in summer, lake sediment archaeal abundance considerably decreased. Sediment archaeal abundance showed a remarkable spatial change in spring but only a slight one in summer. The evident spatial change of sediment archaeal diversity occurred in both seasons. In Dianchi Lake, sediment archaeal community structure in summer was remarkably different from that in spring. Compared to Erhai Lake, Dianchi Lake had relatively high sediment archaeal abundance but low diversity. These two lakes differed remarkably in sediment archaeal community structure. Trophic status determined sediment archaeal abundance, diversity and structure. Archaeal diversity in sediment was much higher than that in water. Water and sediment habitats differed greatly in archaeal community structure. Euryarchaeota predominated in water column, but showed much lower proportion in sediment. Bathyarchaeota was an important component of sediment archaeal community.
Both ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) can contribute to ammonia biotransformation in freshwater lake ecosystems. However, the factors shaping the distribution of sediment AOA and AOB in plateau freshwater lake remains unclear. The present study investigated sediment AOA and AOB communities in two freshwater lakes (hypertrophic Dianchi Lake and mesotrophic Erhai Lake) on the Yunnan Plateau (China). A remarkable difference in the abundance, diversity, and composition of sediment AOA and AOB communities was observed between Dianchi Lake and Erhai Lake. AOB usually outnumbered AOA in Dianchi Lake, but AOA showed the dominance in Erhai Lake. Organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) might be the key determinants of AOB abundance, while AOA abundance was likely influenced by the ration of OM to TN (C/N). AOA or AOB community structure was found to be relatively similar in the same lake. TN and TP might play important roles in shaping sediment AOA and AOB compositions in Dianchi Lake and Erhai Lake. Moreover, Nitrososphaera-like AOA were detected in Dianchi Lake. Nitrosospira- and Nitrosomonas-like AOB were dominant in Dianchi Lake and Erhai Lake, respectively. Sediment AOA and AOB communities in Dianchi Lake and Erhai Lake were generally regulated by trophic state.
To enhance the effectiveness of watershed load reduction decision making, the Risk Explicit Interval Linear Programming (REILP) approach was developed in previous studies to address decision risks and system returns. However, REILP lacks the capability to analyze the tradeoff between risks in the objective function and constraints. Therefore, a refined REILP model is proposed in this study to further enhance the decision support capability of the REILP approach for optimal watershed load reduction. By introducing a tradeoff factor (alpha) into the total risk function, the refined REILP can lead to different compromises between risks associated with the objective functions and the constraints. The proposed model was illustrated using a case study that deals with uncertainty-based optimal load reduction decision making for Lake Qionghai Watershed, China. A risk tradeoff curve with different values of alpha was presented to decision makers as a more flexible platform to support decision formulation. The results of the standard and refined REILP model were compared under 11 aspiration levels. The results demonstrate that, by applying the refined REILP, it is possible to obtain solutions that preserve the same constraint risk as that in the standard REILP but with lower objective risk, which can provide more effective guidance for decision makers.
Rapid urbanization and population growth have resulted in worldwide serious water shortage and environmental deterioration. It is then essential for efficient and feasible allocation of scarce water and environment resources to the competing users. Due to inherent uncertainties, decision making for resources allocation is vulnerable to failure. The scheme feasibility can be evaluated by reliability, representing the failure probability. A progressive reliability oriented multi-objective (PROMO) optimal decision-making procedure is proposed in this study to deal with problems with numerous reliability objectives. Dimensionality of the objectives is reduced by a top-down hierarchical reliability analysis (HRA) process combining optimization with evaluation. Pareto solutions of the reformulated model, representing alternative schemes non-dominated with each other, are generated by a metalmodel-based optimization algorithm. Evaluation and identification of Pareto solutions are conducted by multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). The PROMO procedure is demonstrated for a case study on industrial structure transformation under strict constraints of water resources and total environmental emissions amounts in Guangzhou City, South China. The Pareto front reveals tradeoffs between economic returns of the industries and system reliability. For different reliability preference scenarios, the Pareto solutions are ranked and the top-rated one was recommended for implementation. The model results indicate that the PROMO procedure is effective for model solving and scheme selection of uncertainty-based multi-objective decision making.