The susceptibility of estuaries to nutrient loading is an important issue that cuts across a range of management needs. We used a theory-driven but data-tested simple model to assist classifying estuaries according to their susceptibility to nutrients. This simple nutrient-driven phytoplankton model is based on fundamental principles of mass balance and empirical response functions for a wide variety of estuaries in the United States. Phytoplankton production was assumed to be stoichiometrically proportional to nitrogen load and an introduced ``efficiency factor'' intended to capture the myriad processes involved in converting nitrogen load to algal production. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm of Bayesian inference was then employed for parameter estimation. The model performed remarkably well for chlorophyll estimates, and the predicted estimates of primary production, grazing, and sinking losses are consistent with measurements reported in the literature from a wide array of systems. Analysis of the efficiency factor suggests that estuaries with the ratio of river inflow to estuarine volume (Q/V) greater than 2.0 per year are less susceptible to nutrient loads, and those with Q/V between 0.3 and 2.0 per year are moderately susceptible. This simple model analysis provides a first-order screening tool for estuarine susceptibility classification.
Conserving fish in lakes requires the systematic analysis and assessment of fish species. The issues, conservation needs and fish assemblage changes are described for Lake Qionghai (China). The annual fishery production (AFP) was analysed from 1949 to 2003, which indicated a high disturbance of the aquatic ecosystem in Lake Qionghai caused especially by fisheries. The continuous increase in AFP and the introduction of economically important fish species have changed the fish species structure and diversity of the lake. Only five of 20 native fish species remained extant in 2003. The alien species accounted for 83.58% of the total fish production in 2003. Scoring criteria for 10 indexes of biotic integrity (IBI metrics) were selected for Lake Qionghai. The overall IBI score decreased from 40 in the 1940s to 26 in the 1980s to 20 in 2003. Changes in biotic condition were mainly caused by the destruction of fish physical habitat, pollution, bycatch and the invasion of alien species. Based on the IBI analysis, an ecosystem approach was developed for fish conservation in Lake Qionghai, including conservation at the watershed scale, habitat improvement and restoration, rebuilding of aquatic ecosystems and adaptive ecosystem-based fishery management.
The water supply to Chinese cities is increasingly degrading from pollution due to watershed activities. Consequently, water source protection requires urgent action using optimal land-use management efforts. An inexact linear programming model for optimal land-use management of surface water source area was developed. The model was proposed to balance the economic benefits of land-use development and water source protection. The maximum net economic benefit (NEB) was chosen as the objective of land-use management. The total environmental capacity (TEC) of rivers and the minimum water supply (MWS) were considered key constraints. Other constraints included forest coverage, government requirements concerning the proportions of various land-use types, soil loss, slope lands, and technical constraints. A case study was conducted for the Songhuaba Watershed, a reservoir supplying water to Kunming City, the third largest city in southwestern China. A 15-year (2006 to 2020) optimal model for land-use management was developed to better protect this water source and to gain maximum benefits from development. Ten constraints were involved in the optimal model, and results indicated that NEB ranged between 893 and 1,459 million US\$. The proposed model will allow local authorities to better understand and address complex land-use systems and to develop optimal land-use management strategies for balancing source water protection and local economic development.
Biological contact oxidation technology was used to remediate the polluted river water in Hanyang, China. The purification effect of the polluted river water in three simulated rivers was investigated using two different carriers, i.e., AquaMats made in USA and semi flexible supports made in China. The results showed that when the hydraulic loading rate increased, purification effect in terms of COD(Mn) decreased. Moreover, the removal efficiency of total nitrogen (TN) increased when AquaMats support was used, however it decreased when semi flexible support was used, in comparison with the control experiment. The removal ability of total phosphorus (TP) was strengthened by using different carriers.