科研成果 by Year: 2016

2016
Jia M, Gao X, Zhang Y, Hoffmeister M, Brenner H. Different definitions of CpG island methylator phenotype and outcomes of colorectal cancer: a systematic review. Clin Epigenetics [Internet]. 2016;8:25. 访问链接Abstract
Contradictory results were reported for the prognostic role of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) among colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Differences in the definitions of CIMP were the most common explanation for these discrepancies. The aim of this systematic review was to give an overview of the published studies on CRC prognosis according to the different definitions of CIMP. A systematic literature search was performed in MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science for articles published until 3 April 2015. Data extraction included information about the study population, the definition of CIMP, and investigated outcomes. Thirty-six studies were included in this systematic review. Among them, 30 studies reported the association of CIMP and CRC prognosis and 11 studies reported the association of CIMP with survival after CRC therapy. Overall, 16 different definitions of CIMP were identified. The majority of studies reported a poorer prognosis for patients with CIMP-positive (CIMP+)/CIMP-high (CIMP-H) CRC than with CIMP-negative (CIMP-)/CIMP-low (CIMP-L) CRC. Inconsistent results or varying effect strengths could not be explained by different CIMP definitions used. No consistent variation in response to specific therapies according to CIMP status was found. Comparative analyses of different CIMP panels in the same large study populations are needed to further clarify the role of CIMP definitions and to find out how methylation information can best be used to predict CRC prognosis and response to specific CRC therapies.
Gao X, Zhang Y, Breitling LP, Brenner H. Relationship of tobacco smoking and smoking-related DNA methylation with epigenetic age acceleration. Oncotarget [Internet]. 2016;7:46878-46889. 访问链接Abstract
Recent studies have identified biomarkers of chronological age based on DNA methylation levels. Since active smoking contributes to a wide spectrum of aging-related diseases in adults, this study intended to examine whether active smoking exposure could accelerate the DNA methylation age in forms of age acceleration (AA, residuals of the DNA methylation age estimate regressed on chronological age). We obtained the DNA methylation profiles in whole blood samples by Illumina Infinium Human Methylation450 Beadchip array in two independent subsamples of the ESTHER study and calculated their DNA methylation ages by two recently proposed algorithms. None of the self-reported smoking indicators (smoking status, cumulative exposure and smoking cessation time) or serum cotinine levels was significantly associated with AA. On the contrary, we successfully confirmed that 66 out of 150 smoking-related CpG sites were associated with AA, even after correction for multiple testing (FDR <0.05). We further built a smoking index (SI) based on these loci and demonstrated a monotonic dose-response relationship of this index with AA. In conclusion, DNA methylation-based biological indicators for current and past smoking exposure, but not self-reported smoking information or serum cotinine levels, were found to be related to DNA methylation defined AA. Further research should address potential mechanisms underlying the observed patterns, such as potential reflections of susceptibility to environmental hazards in both smoking related methylation changes and methylation defined AA.
Gao X, Zhang Y, Breitling LP, Brenner H. Tobacco smoking and methylation of genes related to lung cancer development. Oncotarget [Internet]. 2016;7:59017-59028. 访问链接Abstract
Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, and cigarette smoking is the major environmental hazard for its development. This study intended to examine whether smoking could alter methylation of genes at lung cancer risk loci identified by genome-wide association studies (GWASs). By systematic literature review, we selected 75 genomic candidate regions based on 120 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). DNA methylation levels of 2854 corresponding cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) candidates in whole blood samples were measured by the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation450 Beadchip array in two independent subsamples of the ESTHER study. After correction for multiple testing, we successfully confirmed associations with smoking for one previously identified CpG site within the KLF6 gene and identified 12 novel sites located in 7 genes: STK32A, TERT, MSH5, ACTA2, GATA3, VTI1A and CHRNA5 (FDR <0.05). Current smoking was linked to a 0.74% to 2.4% decrease of DNA methylation compared to never smoking in 11 loci, and all but one showed significant associations (FDR <0.05) with life-time cumulative smoking (pack-years). In conclusion, our study demonstrates the impact of tobacco smoking on DNA methylation of lung cancer related genes, which may indicate that lung cancer susceptibility genes might be regulated by methylation changes in response to smoking. Nevertheless, this mechanism warrants further exploration in future epigenetic and biomarker studies.
Gao X, Mons U, Zhang Y, Breitling LP, Brenner H. DNA methylation changes in response to active smoking exposure are associated with leukocyte telomere length among older adults. Eur J Epidemiol [Internet]. 2016;31:1231-1241. 访问链接Abstract
Telomere length (TL) is associated with an increased risk of aging-related diseases. As a preventable environmental hazard of morbidity and mortality, smoking has been reported to promote TL attrition by producing a variety of oxidants and free radicals. Since DNA methylation has been demonstrated to play an important role in the pathways of smoking and smoking-induced diseases, this study aimed to address whether the smoking-associated DNA methylation changes could be associated with accelerated TL shortening. We obtained DNA methylation profiles in whole blood samples by Illumina Infinium Human Methylation 450 Beadchip array in two independent subsamples of the ESTHER study and measured their relative TL by quantitative PCR. Terminal Restriction Fragment analysis was additionally performed in a subsample to obtain absolute TL in base pairs. TL measurements across panels were standardized by z-transformation. After correction for multiple testing, we successfully confirmed that seven out of 151 smoking-related CpG sites were associated with TL (FDR <0.05). A smoking index based on the seven loci showed monotonic associations with TL, cumulative smoking exposure and time after smoking cessation. In conclusion, our study supports suggestions that epigenetic alterations could play a role in smoking-associated disproportionate aging as reflected by TL. Further research is required to examine whether the identified epigenetic signatures of smoking can be of value in clinical practice to assess individual aging across the lifespan.
Evans TG, Churchyard GJ, Penn-Nicholson A, Chen C, Gao X, Tait DR, Hatherill M. Epidemiologic studies and novel clinical research approaches that impact TB vaccine development. Tuberculosis (Edinb) [Internet]. 2016;99 Suppl 1:S21-5. 访问链接Abstract
The 4th Global Forum on TB Vaccines, convened in Shanghai, China, from 21 - 24 April 2015, brought together a wide and diverse community involved in tuberculosis vaccine research and development to discuss the current status of, and future directions for this critical effort. This paper summarizes the sessions on Developing TB Vaccines for Prevention of Disease, Prevention of Infection, and Immunotherapy Indications; Concepts and Approaches in Clinical Research & Development; and Epidemiological Research. Summaries of all sessions from the 4th Global Forum are compiled in a special supplement of Tuberculosis.