Physical and chemical properties of submicrometer aerosol particles were measured in summer 2004 (June/July) and winter 2005 (January/February) in Beijing, Peoples Republic of China, using a Twin-Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (T-DMPS), a Hygroscopicity-Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (H-TDMA), and a Micro Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI). Particle number-size distributions were measured in the diameter range Dp=3-800 nm and hygroscopic properties were determined at initial dry particle diameters of Dp(j) (j =30, 50, 80, 150, 250, and 350 nm) at a relative humidity (RH) of 90%. Hygroscopic properties were compared with chemical analyses of aerosol samples taken with the MOUDI. Based on the hygroscopicity data, the total hygroscopic particle volume was modeled, including dependence on dry particle size, season and level of pollution using a simple approach. Overall, the chemical analysis showed ammonium sulfate to be the major inorganic component of the urban submicrometer aerosol in Beijing along with relatively high fractions of elemental carbon (10-25%) and organic matter (15-60%) depending on particle size and season. The hygroscopic growth distributions (H-TDMA) subdivided the aerosol population into three different groups of particles with varying growth factors depending on dry particle size, namely nearly hydrophobic (growth factor=0.96-1.07), less hygroscopic (1.06-1.29) and more hygroscopic (1.26-1.62). Hydrophobic particle fractions indicating freshly emitted soot/carbonaceous particles varied between 10 and 32% depending on dry particle size and season. During heavily polluted times, a decreasing number of hydrophobic particle fractions indicated that the urban submicrometer aerosol in Beijing was highly influenced by more aged aerosol transported from the industrial regions around Beijing containing sulfate as a major component. Based on model calculations, the urban submicrometer aerosol in Beijing showed strong compositional variations. The calculated total hygroscopic volume fractions varied between 16 and 65% depending on size, level of pollution and season. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
ISI Document Delivery No.: 417IXTimes Cited: 44Cited Reference Count: 30Massling, A. Stock, M. Wehner, B. Wu, Z. J. Hu, M. Brueggemann, E. Gnauk, T. Herrmann, H. Wiedensohler, A.Wiedensohler, Alfred/D-1223-2013; Wu, Zhijun/A-7041-2012; Wang, Linden/M-6617-2014; Wehner, Birgit/C-2650-2014; Herrmann, Hartmut/C-2486-2009Herrmann, Hartmut/0000-0001-7044-210152153Pergamon-elsevier science ltdOxford