A drop-freeze array (PeKing University Ice Nucleation Array, PKU-INA) was developed based on the cold-stage method to investigate heterogeneous ice nucleation properties of atmospheric particles in the immersion freezing mode from -30 to 0 degrees C. The instrumental details as well as characterization and performance evaluation are described in this paper. A careful temperature calibration protocol was developed in our work. The uncertainties in the reported temperatures were found to be less than 0.4 degrees C at various cooling rates after calibration. We also measured the ice nucleation activities of droplets containing different mass concentrations of illite NX, and the results obtained in our work show good agreement with those reported previously using other instruments with similar principles. Overall, we show that our newly developed PKU-INA is a robust and reliable instrument for investigation of heterogeneous ice nucleation in the immersion freezing mode.
ISI Document Delivery No.: GX9PYTimes Cited: 0Cited Reference Count: 39Chen, Jie Pei, Xiangyu Wang, Hong Chen, Jingchuan Zhu, Yishu Tang, Mingjin Wu, ZhijunTang, Mingjin/A-5345-2011Tang, Mingjin/0000-0002-8756-8445National Natural Science Foundation of China [41475127, 41571130021]; Chinese Academy of Sciences international collaborative project [132744KYSB20160036]This research was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, grant number [41475127 and 41571130021] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences international collaborative project, grant number [132744KYSB20160036].5MdpiBasel