Two-year measurements of particle number size distribution (3 nm-10 mu m) were conducted in Beijing, China since March 2004. Their seasonal, weekly and diurnal variations and dependencies on meteorological parameters were investigated. The annual average particle number concentrations of the nucleation mode (3-20 nm), Aitken mode (20100 nm), and accumulation mode (0.1-1 mu m) are 9000 cm(-3), 15,900 cm(-3), and 7800 cm(-3), respectively. Particle number concentrations in Beijing are generally higher than that in cities of developed countries, especially for the accumulation mode particles. Both the highest total particle number concentration and the lowest volume concentration occurred in spring due to the frequent nucleation events. However, the minimum particle number concentration was observed in summer, and the maximum volume concentration in fall. The diurnal variation of the nucleation mode particles was mainly influenced by nucleation events, primarily in spring and winter. The diurnal variation of number concentration of the Aitken mode particles closely correlates with the traffic densities in all the four seasons. At the same time, obvious contribution of the growth of the nucleation mode to the number concentration of the Aitken mode particle has been also found in spring, Summer, and fall. Significant differences in diurnal patterns of particle number concentrations between workdays and weekends are not observed in Beijing. Local wind speed plays an important role in shaping the particle number size distributions in the urban area of Beijing. With increasing wind speed, the nucleation and coarse mode particle number concentrations increase, while the number concentrations of the Aitken mode and accumulation mode particles decrease. A "U-shape relationship" between the total particle volume concentration and wind speed is observed. Frequently low wind speed (lower than 3 m s(-1)) in Beijing is one of key factors leading to the poor air quality and low visibility. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
ISI Document Delivery No.: 372ZOTimes Cited: 150Cited Reference Count: 55Wu, Zhijun Hu, Min Lin, Peng Liu, Shang Wehner, Birgit Wiedensohler, AlfredLiu, Shang/F-9085-2011; Lin, Peng/G-4867-2016; Wu, Zhijun/A-7041-2012; Wehner, Birgit/C-2650-2014; Wiedensohler, Alfred/D-1223-2013Liu, Shang/0000-0002-3403-8651; Lin, Peng/0000-0002-3567-7017;National Natural Science Foundation of China ; National Basic Research Program [2002CB2111605]; "863" project [2006AA06A308]; Ministry of Science & Technology, PR China; Beijing Council of Science and Technology [HB200504-2]; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) [WI 14449/9-1]This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (20420130348), the National Basic Research Program (2002CB2111605) and the "863" project (2006AA06A308), from Ministry of Science & Technology, PR China, Beijing Council of Science and Technology (HB200504-2), and by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, WI 14449/9-1). The authors would like to thank Dr. Xiaoyang Liu and Prof Jietai Mao for providing meteorological data.1864147Pergamon-elsevier science ltdOxford1873-2844