Efficient ofloxacin degradation via photo-Fenton process over eco-friendly MIL-88A(Fe): Performance, degradation pathways, intermediate library establishment and toxicity evaluation


The high-throughput production of the eco-friendly MIL-88A(Fe) was achieved under mild reaction conditions with normal pressure and temperature. The as-prepared MIL-88A(Fe) exhibited efficient photo-Fenton catalytic ofloxacin (OFL) degradation upon visible light irradiation with good stability and reusability. The OFL (20.0 mg/L) was completely degraded within 50 min under visible light with the aid of MIL-88A(Fe) (0.25 g/L) and H2O2 (1.0 mL/L) in aqueous solution (pH = 7.0). The hydroxyl radicals (·OH) are the main active species during the photo-Fenton oxidation process. Meanwhile, the degradation intermediates and the corresponding degradation pathways were identified and proposed with the aid of both ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Finally, the degradation product library was firstly established to identify intermediate transformation products (TPs) with their variation of concentration, and their corresponding toxicologic activities were assessed via Toxtree and T.E.S.T software as well. Finally, the MIL-88A is efficient and stable with four cycles’ catalysis operations, demonstrating good potential for water treatment.