Xie Z-H, He C-S, Zhou H-Y, Li L-L, Liu Y, Du Y, Liu W, Mu Y, Lai B. Effects of Molecular Structure on Organic Contaminants’ Degradation Efficiency and Dominant ROS in the Advanced Oxidation Process with Multiple ROS. Environmental Science & Technology [Internet]. 2022;56:8784-8795. 访问链接Abstract
In this study, the previously overlooked effects of contaminants’ molecular structure on their degradation efficiencies and dominant reactive oxygen species (ROS) in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are investigated with a peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation system selected as the typical AOP system. Averagely, degradation efficiencies of 19 contaminants are discrepant in the CoCaAl-LDO/PMS system with production of SO4•–, •OH, and 1O2. Density functional theory calculations indicated that compounds with high EHOMO, low-energy gap (ΔE = ELUMO – EHOMO), and low vertical ionization potential are more vulnerable to be attacked. Further analysis disclosed that the dominant ROS was the same one when treating similar types of contaminants, namely SO4•–, 1O2, 1O2, and •OH for the degradation of CBZ-like compounds, SAs, bisphenol, and triazine compounds, respectively. This phenomenon may be caused by the contaminants’ structures especially the commonly shared or basic parent structures which can affect their effective reaction time and second-order rate constants with ROS, thus influencing the contribution of each ROS during its degradation. Overall, the new insights gained in this study provide a basis for designing more effective AOPs to improve their practical application in wastewater treatment.
Chen L, Duan J, Du P, Sun W, Lai B, Liu W. Accurate identification of radicals by in-situ electron paramagnetic resonance in ultraviolet-based homogenous advanced oxidation processes. Water Research [Internet]. 2022;221:118747. 访问链接Abstract
Accurate identification of radicals in advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) is important to study the mechanisms on radical production and subsequent oxidation-reduction reaction. The commonly applied radical quenching experiments cannot provide direct evidences on generation and evolution of radicals in AOPs, while electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is a cutting-edge technology to identify radicals based on spectral characteristics. However, the complexity of EPR spectrum brings uncertainty and inconsistency to radical identification and mechanism clarification. This work presented a comprehensive study on identification of radicals by in-situ EPR analysis in four typical UV-based homogenous AOPs, including UV/H2O2, UV/peroxodisulfate (and peroxymonosulfate), UV/peracetic acid and UV/IO4− systems. Radical formation mechanism was also clarified based on EPR results. A reliable EPR method using organic solvents was proposed to identify alkoxy and alkyl radicals (CH3C(=O)OO·, CH3C(=O)O· and ·CH3) in UV/PAA system. Two activation pathways for radical production were proposed in UV/IO4− system, in which the produced IO3·, IO4·, ·OH and hydrated electron were precisely detected. It is interesting that addition of specific organic solvents can effectively identify oxygen-center and carbon-center radicals. A key parameter in EPR spectrum for 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) spin adduct, AH, is ranked as: ·CH3 (23 G) >·OH (15 G) >IO3· (12.9 G) >O2·− (11 G) ≥·OOH (9–11 G) ≥IO4· (9–10 G) ≥SO4·− (9–10 G) >CH3C(=O)OO· (8.5 G) > CH3C(=O)O· (7.5 G). This study will give a systematic method on identification of radicals in AOPs, and shed light on the insightful understanding of radical production mechanism.
Lyu Y, Huang T, Liu W, Sun W. Unveil the quantum chemical descriptors determining direct photodegradation of antibiotics under simulated sunlight: Batch experiments and model development. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering [Internet]. 2022;10:108086. 访问链接Abstract
The massive use of antibiotics has led to their omnipresence in aquatic environments, and the photodegradation was found to be the dominant transformation process for antibiotics in the natural river system. Herein, we investigated the photodegradation kinetics of 77 antibiotics in 7 classes in water under simulated sunlight. Using the quantum chemical descriptors predicted by the density functional theory calculation, the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models were established to explore the main chemical descriptors determining the photodegradation of antibiotics. The results showed that the photodegradation kinetics of antibiotics conformed to the pseudo-first order kinetic model. The photodegradation rate constants of different antibiotics varied 4 orders of magnitude, and the photodegradation rate constants of quinolones were significantly higher than those for other classes of antibiotics due to the F atoms in their molecular structures. The developed QSAR models revealed that the energy gap (Egap) between ELUMO and EHOMO was the main chemical descriptor determining the photodegradation of antibiotics, and it was negatively correlated with lgk. In addition, the number of F atom was also included in the QSAR models due to the great contribution of F atom to the direct photolysis of quinolones. This study ordered the photodegradation rate constants of 77 antibiotics, and revealed the major chemical descriptors determining the photodegradation of antibiotics. The results provide the basic information for the photolysis of antibiotics, which is significant for predicting the environmental behaviors and evaluating the ecological risks of antibiotics in aquatic environments.
Ji H, Ni J, Zhao D, Liu W. Application of Titanate Nanotubes for Photocatalytic Decontamination in Water: Challenges and Prospects. ACS ES&T Engineering [Internet]. 2022;2:1015-1038. 访问链接Abstract
Photocatalysis is an efficient technology for water decontamination and purification. Development of photocatalysts with high activity becomes the key to this research area. In recent years, titanate nanotubes (TNTs), derived from TiO2 nanoparticles through hydrothermal treatment with NaOH/KOH, have been attracting great attention. TNTs are composed of edge-sharing [TiO6] octahedrons as the skeleton and Na+/H+/K+ in the interlayers, which exhibit a uniform tubular microstructure, a large specific surface area, high photoelectric conversion properties, and good stability. Therefore, TNTs and their modified materials are widely used for removal of heavy metals and organic contaminants through photocatalytic oxidation or reduction. In this perspective, we systematically summarize cutting-edge research on the application of TNT-based photocatalysts in the water treatment area, illustrate the challenges for fundamental research and practical applications, and reveal the critical knowledge gaps and research needs for the future. In particular, preparation and specific properties of TNT-based photocatalysts are presented. Modification of TNTs to promote photocatalytic activity is discussed as well as their applications for contaminants removal from water. The latest advances in theoretical calculations on materials and contaminants in this photocatalysis system are clarified. In the future, strategic programs on both fundamental research and practical applications of TNT-based photocatalysts are proposed.
Duan J, Chen L, Ji H, Li P, Li F, Liu W. Activation of peracetic acid by metal-organic frameworks (ZIF-67) for efficient degradation of sulfachloropyridazine. Chinese Chemical Letters [Internet]. 2022;33:3172-3176. 访问链接Abstract
Peracetic acid (PAA)-based system is becoming an emerging advanced oxidation process (AOP) for effective removal of organic contaminants from water. Various approaches have been tested to activate PAA, while no previous researches reported the application of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) materials for PAA activation. In this study, zeolitic imidazole framework (ZIF)-67, a representative MOFs, was facile synthesized via direct-mixing method at room temperature, and tested for PAA activation and sulfachloropyridazine (SCP) degradation. The as-synthesized ZIF-67 exhibited excellent performance for PAA activation and SCP degradation with 100% of SCP degraded within 3 min, owing to the specific MOFs structure and abundant Co2+ sites. The pseudo-first-order kinetic model was applied to fit the kinetic data, with rate constant k1 of ZIF-67 activated PAA system 34.2 and 156.5 times higher than those of conventional Co3O4 activated PAA and direct oxidation by PAA. Radical quenching experiments and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis indicated that CH3C(O)OO• played a major role in this PAA activation system. Then, the Fukui index based on density functional theory (DFT) calculation was used to predict the possible reaction sites of SCP for electrophilic attack by CH3C(O)OO•. In addition, the degradation pathway of SCP was proposed based on Fukui index values and intermediates detection, which mainly included the S-N bond cleavage and SO2 extrusion and followed by further oxidation, dechlorination, and hydroxylation. Therefore, ZIF-67 activated PAA is a novel strategy and holds strong potential for the removal of emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) from water.
Zhang P, Zhou P, Peng J, Liu Y, Zhang H, He C, Xiong Z, Liu W, Lai B. Insight into metal-free carbon catalysis in enhanced permanganate oxidation: Changeover from electron donor to electron mediator. Water Research [Internet]. 2022;219:118626. 访问链接Abstract
Reports that the exploitation of metal-free carbon materials to enhance permanganate (PM) oxidation to abate organic pollution in water have emerged in recent publications. However, the activation mechanism and active sites involved are ambiguous because of the intricate physicochemical properties of carbon. In this study, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as a typical carbon material exhibits excellent capability to boost permanganate oxidation for removing a wide array of organic contaminants. The simultaneous two reaction pathways in the rGO/PM system were justified: i) rGO donates to electrons to decompose PM and produce highly reactive intermediate Mn species for oxidizing organic contaminants; ii) rGO mediates electron transfer from organics to PM. Oxygen-containing groups (hydroxyl, carboxyl, and carbonyl) were justified as electron-donating groups, while structural defects (vacancy and edge defects) were shown to be critical for rGO-mediated electron transfer. Therefore, the oxidation pathway of the rGO/PM system can be controlled by regulating oxygen functional groups and structural defects. The changeover from electron donor to electron mediator by decorating surface active sites of carbon materials will be of great help to the design and application of carbocatalysts.
Liu Y, Chen L, Liu X, Qian T, Yao M, Liu W, Ji H. Tuning band structure of graphitic carbon nitride for efficient degradation of sulfamethazine: Atmospheric condition and theoretical calculation. Chinese Chemical Letters [Internet]. 2022;33:1385-1389. 访问链接Abstract
ABSTRACT Numerous approaches have been used to modify graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) for improving its photocatalytic activity. In this study, we demonstrated a facial post-calcination method for modified graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4-Ar/Air) to direct tuning band structure, i.e., bandgap and positions of conduction band (CB)/valence band (VB), through the control of atmospheric condition without involving any additional elements or metals or semiconductors. The synthesized g-C3N4-Ar/Air could efficiently degrade sulfamethazine (SMT) under simulated solar light, i.e., 99.0% removal of SMT with rate constant k1 = 2.696 h−1 within 1.5 h (4.9 times than pristine g-C3N4). Material characterizations indicated that the damaged/partial-collapsed structure and decreased nanosheet-interlayer distance for g-C3N4-Ar/Air resulted in the shift of band structure due to the denser stacking of pristine g-C3N4 through oxidative exfoliation and planarization by air calcination. In addition, the bandgap of g-C3N4-Ar/Air was slightly shrunk from 2.82 eV (pristine g-C3N4) to 2.79 eV, and the CB was significantly upshifted from −0.44 eV (pristine g-C3N4) to −0.81 eV, suggesting the powerful ability for donating the electrons for O2 to form •O2−. Fukui index (f –) based on theoretical calculation indicated that the sites of SMT molecule with high values, i.e., N9, C4 and C6, preferred to be attacked by •O2− and •OH, which is confirmed by the intermediates’ analysis. The tuning method for graphitic carbon nitride provides a simple approach to regulate the charge carrier lifetime then facilitate the utilization efficiency of solar light, which exhibits great potential in efficient removal of emerging organic contaminants from wastewater.
Wang J-S, Yi X-H, Xu X, Ji H, Alanazi AM, Wang C-C, Zhao C, Kaneti YV, Wang P, Liu W, et al. Eliminating tetracycline antibiotics matrix via photoactivated sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation process over the immobilized MIL-88A: Batch and continuous experiments. Chemical Engineering Journal [Internet]. 2022;431:133213. 访问链接Abstract
This work demonstrates the successful immobilization of MIL-88A(Fe) MOF on cotton fibers to fabricate MIL-88A(Fe)/cotton fibers (MC) by an eco-friendly method. The prepared MC is used to activate peroxydisulfate for eliminating multiple tetracycline antibiotics, such as oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TTC), and chlortetracycline (CTC) in simulated wastewater under UV-light irradiation. The photoactivated sulfate radical-advanced oxidation processes (SR-AOPs) towards the removal of tetracycline antibiotics matrix (initial concentration of 10.0 mg/L) using MC were initially investigated using a batch method. The results reveal that 97.5% OTC, 95.2% TTC, and 100.0% CTC can be degraded in the MC/UV/PDS system in the presence of 2 g/L of MC and 1 mM of PDS. The degradation pathways of OTC, TTC, and CTC were clarified via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and DFT calculations. The quantitative structure–activity relationship analysis shows that the tetracycline antibiotics are transformed into their corresponding intermediates with lower toxicity within 8.0 min. A self-designed fixed bed reactor, in which the MC was packed into the annular channel, was adopted to test the long-term operation possibility of the MC in the continuous photoactivated SR-AOP system. The findings demonstrate that the whole antibiotics matrix can be removed completely within 22 h. This work is the first to demonstrate the use of MOFs as catalysts for SR-AOP to achieve continuous purification of simulated wastewater. The findings highlight a new possibility for the use of MOFs in large-scale wastewater treatment over.
Juve J-MA, Li F, Zhu Y, Liu W, Ottosen LDM, Zhao D, Wei Z. Concentrate and degrade PFOA with a photo-regenerable composite of In-doped TNTs@AC. Chemosphere [Internet]. 2022;300:134495. 访问链接Abstract
“Concentrate-and-degrade” is an effective strategy to promote mass transfer and degradation of pollutants in photocatalytic systems, yet suitable and cost-effective photocatalysts are required to practice the new concept. In this study, we doped a post-transition metal of Indium (In) on a novel composite adsorptive photocatalyst, activated carbon-supported titanate nanotubes (TNTs@AC), to effectively degrade perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). In/TNTs@AC exhibited both excellent PFOA adsorption (>99% in 30 min) and photodegradation (>99% in 4 h) under optimal conditions (25 °C, pH 7, 1 atm, 1 g/L catalyst, 0.1 mg/L PFOA, 254 nm). The heterojunction structure of the composite facilitated a cooperative adsorption mode of PFOA, i.e., binding of the carboxylic head group of PFOA to the metal oxide and attachment of the hydrophobic tail to AC. The resulting side-on adsorption mode facilitates the electron (e‒) transfer from the carboxylic head to the photogenerated hole (h+), which was the major oxidant verified by scavenger tests. Furthermore, the presence of In enables direct electron transfer and facilitates the subsequent stepwise defluorination. Finally, In/TNTs@AC was amenable to repeated uses in four consecutive adsorption-photodegradation runs. The findings showed that adsorptive photocatalysts can be prepared by hybridization of carbon and photoactive semiconductors and the enabled “concentrate-and-degrade” strategy is promising for the removal and degradation of trace levels of PFOA from polluted waters.
Fan J, Sun X, Liu Y, Zhao D, Hao X, Liu W, Cai Z. New insight into environmental photochemistry of PAHs induced by dissolved organic matters: A model of naphthalene in seawater. Process Safety and Environmental Protection [Internet]. 2022;161:325-333. 访问链接Abstract
The photochemical behavior of a model PAH, naphthalene, was investigated under simulated sunlight irradiation with different dissolved organic matter (DOM) in seawater. The results revealed that naphthalene was prone to direct photolysis (Φd = 1.34 × 10-3) and could be degraded by 3DOM*/1O2-induced reactions with fulvic acid (FA) and humic acid (HA) at low concentrations. However, the DOM at a high level dramatically decreased the kobs due to the higher light attenuation and radical competition effect. The presence of FA resulted in lower 3DOM*/1O2 generation and quantum yield compared with HA, but it achieved higher degradation kinetics due to the higher reactivity between 3FA* and naphthalene and their lower binding effect. The naphthalene degradation in natural water with different depths and DOM were modeled based on the experimental results, which revealed the important role of indirect photolysis initiated by inorganic constituents. Moreover, several degradation intermediates were identified by GC-MS and three possible pathways were proposed. The Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSAR) evaluation revealed that some intermediates are more toxic than original naphthalene. This study offers further insights into the photochemical behavior of PAHs, which will facilitate our understanding of the persistence and ecological risks of organic contaminants in natural waters.
Qi J, Yang X, Pan P-Y, Huang T, Yang X, Wang C-C, Liu W. Interface Engineering of Co(OH)2 Nanosheets Growing on the KNbO3 Perovskite Based on Electronic Structure Modulation for Enhanced Peroxymonosulfate Activation. Environmental Science & Technology [Internet]. 2022;56:5200-5212. 访问链接
Liu X, Li F, Liu Y, Li P, Chen L, Li B, Qian T, Liu W. Degradation of diclofenac in a photosensitization-like photocatalysis process using palladium quantum dots deposited graphite carbon nitride under solar light. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering [Internet]. 2022;10:107545. 访问链接Abstract
The widely spilled diclofenac (DCF) in water has attracted broad attention because of its potential environmental risk. In this work, palladium quantum dots (PQDs) deposited g-C3N4 photocatalysts (PCNs) were fabricated through a two-step process, i.e., initial thermal polymerization followed by an in-situ reduction for PQDs deposition. In addition, the synthesized g-C3N4 (43.09 m2/g) composing of ultrathin sheets had 4 times larger specific surface area than bulk g-C3N4 (8.73 m2/g), thus offered abundant sites for reaction. The optimized material (PCN2) with 1 wt% PQDs loading content achieved the highest cost-efficiency for DCF degradation, and exhibited a kinetic rate constant (k1) of 0.072 min−1, which was  8 times higher than bulk g-C3N4. The mechanisms on enhanced photocatalytic activity of PCN are interpreted as: (1) decoration of PQDs can alter the optical band structure of g-C3N4, leading to a narrowed bandgap; (2) PQDs can act as electron transfer mediator to retard the recombination of photogenerated charge carriers; and (3) a photosensitization-like electron transfer pathway occurs from highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of DCF to conduction band (CB) of g-C3N4 by means of PQDs. Radical quenching experiments and electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis indicated •O2- was the primary radical for DCF degradation. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation combined intermediates identification further revealed that the Cl11 and N12 atoms with high Fukui index (f 0) were more venerable to attack. PCN2 also remained good stability after five continuous cycles for DCF degradation, showing the great potential for practical application in water treatment area.
Wang J-F, Liu Y, Shao P, Zhu Z-Y, Ji H-D, Du Z-X, Wang C-C, Liu W, Gao L-J. Efficient ofloxacin degradation via photo-Fenton process over eco-friendly MIL-88A(Fe): Performance, degradation pathways, intermediate library establishment and toxicity evaluation. Environmental Research [Internet]. 2022;210:112937. 访问链接Abstract
The high-throughput production of the eco-friendly MIL-88A(Fe) was achieved under mild reaction conditions with normal pressure and temperature. The as-prepared MIL-88A(Fe) exhibited efficient photo-Fenton catalytic ofloxacin (OFL) degradation upon visible light irradiation with good stability and reusability. The OFL (20.0 mg/L) was completely degraded within 50 min under visible light with the aid of MIL-88A(Fe) (0.25 g/L) and H2O2 (1.0 mL/L) in aqueous solution (pH = 7.0). The hydroxyl radicals (·OH) are the main active species during the photo-Fenton oxidation process. Meanwhile, the degradation intermediates and the corresponding degradation pathways were identified and proposed with the aid of both ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Finally, the degradation product library was firstly established to identify intermediate transformation products (TPs) with their variation of concentration, and their corresponding toxicologic activities were assessed via Toxtree and T.E.S.T software as well. Finally, the MIL-88A is efficient and stable with four cycles’ catalysis operations, demonstrating good potential for water treatment.
Liu Z, Liu Y, Sun X, Ji H, Liu W, Cai Z. Construction of Z-scheme Ag/AgVO3/carbon-rich g-C3N4 heterojunction for enhanced photocatalytic degradation of sulfamethiadiazole: DFT calculation and mechanism study. Chemical Engineering Journal [Internet]. 2022;433:133604. 访问链接Abstract
A novel Z-scheme Ag/AgVO3/carbon-rich g-C3N4 heterojunction with excellent solar-light-driven photocatalytic activity was constructed via a facile hydrothermal-calcining method. The Ag/AgVO3/carbon-rich g-C3N4 composites displayed superior performance for the photocatalytic degradation of sulfamethiadiazole (SFZ) under solar irradiation. The optimal composite with a 10 wt% Ag/AgVO3 content showed the highest photocatalytic activity, its degradation rate constant (k) for SFZ degradation was ∼13 and 30 times than that of carbon-rich g-C3N4 (CCN) and Ag/AgVO3, respectively. Furthermore, •O2– was identified as the most crucial reactive species in the Z-scheme photocatalysis system. The greatly improved photocatalytic activities are derived from the built-in electric field (BIEF) of CCN and efficient Z-scheme charge transfer with Ag nanoparticles as charge transmission-bridge. The possible photocatalytic degradation mechanism and pathway over Ag/AgVO3/carbon-rich g-C3N4 were proposed based on LC-MS analysis and density functional theory (DFT) calculation, and the toxicity of intermediates was evaluated by Quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) based prediction. In summary, this work provides new insight into constructing highly efficient Z-scheme photocatalyst, which is promising for implementation in surface water remediation.
Du P, Liu W, Rao Z, Wang J. Accelerated Oxidation of Organic Micropollutants during Peracetic Acid Treatment in the Presence of Bromide Ions. ACS ES&T Water [Internet]. 2022;2:320-328. 访问链接Abstract
Peracetic acid (PAA), an alternative disinfectant of chlorine, has drawn increasing attention in the application of wastewater treatment. However, little is known about the influence of water matrices on PAA-induced organic micropollutant (OMP) degradation. Here, we found that the coexisting bromide ions (Br–) in water can trigger the oxidation of OMP during PAA treatment but probably result in higher ecotoxicity. Br– can efficiently decompose PAA with a species-specific rate constant (kPAAH/Br–) of 0.198 ± 0.003 M–1·s–1. The thus generated HOBr led to a significant abatement (31.8–81.3%) of OMPs (17α-ethinylestradiol, sulfamethoxazole, naproxen, and phenol) after a 1 h reaction at pH 7.1. The coexisting H2O2 component in the PAA solution can competitively consume HOBr and inhibit OMP transformation. The OMP degradation in the PAA/Br– process was highly pH-dependent and preferred acidic conditions. Furthermore, a comprehensive model was established to simulate the reaction kinetics of the OMP degradation by the PAA/Br– process with good accuracy. High-performance/electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry results indicated the generation of various brominated products, with higher model-predicted toxicity than their parent compounds. This work significantly advances the understanding of the role of Br– in OMP oxidation by PAA and alerts the possible environmental health risks.
Pan F, Ye Y, Wang Q, Fu J, Xia D, Liu W. Effect and Mechanism of Titanium Nanomaterials on Microbial Community Structure and Function in Sequencing Batch Reactor. ACS ES&T Water [Internet]. 2022;2:395-404. 访问链接Abstract
{ A series doses (0–1.0 g/L) of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and titanate nanotubes (TNTs) were added into the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) to investigate the biological effect of titanium nanomaterials. TNTs and TiO2 showed a moderate suppressing effect on SBR performance, while TiO2 seemed to be more toxic. Further, 0.04 g/L TiO2 resulted in significant inhibition on the removal of methylene blue (p < 0.05
Luo M, Zhang H, Zhou P, Xiong Z, Huang B, Peng J, Liu R, Liu W, Lai B. Efficient activation of ferrate(VI) by colloid manganese dioxide: Comprehensive elucidation of the surface-promoted mechanism. Water Research [Internet]. 2022;215:118243. 访问链接Abstract
Current research focuses on introducing additional energy or reducing agents to directly accelerate the formation of Fe(IV) and Fe(V) from ferrate (Fe(VI)), thereby ameliorating the oxidation activity of Fe(VI). Interestingly, this study discovers that colloid manganese dioxide (cMnO2) can remarkably promote Fe(VI) to remove various contaminants via a novel surface-promoted pathway. Many lines of evidence suggest that high-valent Fe species are the primary active oxidants in the cMnO2−Fe(VI) system, however, the underlying activation mechanism for the direct reduction of Fe(VI) by cMnO2 to generate Fe(IV)/Fe(V) is eliminated. Further analysis found that Fe(VI) can combine with the vacancies in cMnO2 to form precursor complex (cMnO2−Fe(VI)*), which possesses a higher oxidation potential than Fe(VI). This makes cMnO2−Fe(VI)* is more vigorous to oxidize pollutants with electron-rich moieties through the electron transfer step than alone Fe(VI), resulting in producing Fe(V) and Fe(IV). The products of Fe(VI) decay (i.e., Fe(II), Fe(III), and H2O2) are revealed to play vital roles in further boosting the formation of Fe(IV) and Fe(V). Most importantly, the catalytic stability of cMnO2 in complicated waters is superior to popular reductants, suggesting its outstanding application potential. Taken together, this work provides a full-scale insight into the surface-promoted mechanism in Fe(VI) oxidation process, thus providing an efficient and green strategy for Fe(VI) activation.
Du P, Wang J, Sun G, Chen L, Liu W. Hydrogen atom abstraction mechanism for organic compound oxidation by acetylperoxyl radical in Co(II)/peracetic acid activation system. Water Research [Internet]. 2022;212:118113. 访问链接Abstract
Peracetic acid (PAA) has been widely used as an alternative disinfectant in wastewater treatment, and PAA-based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have drawn increasing attention recently. Among the generated reactive species after PAA activation, acetylperoxyl radical (CH3CO3•) plays an important role in organic compounds degradation. However, little is known about the reaction mechanism on CH3CO3• attack due to the challenging of experimental analysis. In this study, a homogeneous PAA activation system was built up using Co(II) as an activator at neutral pH to generate CH3CO3• for phenol degradation. More importantly, reaction mechanism on CH3CO3•-driven oxidation of phenol is elucidated at the molecular level. CH3CO3• with lower electrophilicity index but much larger Waals molecular volume holds different phenol oxidation route compared with the conventional •OH. Direct evidences on CH3CO3• formation and attack mechanism are provided through integrated experimental and theoretical results, indicating that hydrogen atom abstraction (HAA) is the most favorable route in the initial step of CH3CO3•-driven phenol oxidation. HAA reaction step is found to produce phenoxy radicals with a low energy barrier of 4.78 kcal mol−1 and free energy change of -12.21 kcal mol−1. The generated phenoxy radicals will undergo further dimerization to form 4-phenoxyphenol and corresponding hydroxylated products, or react with CH3CO3• to generate catechol and hydroquinone. These results significantly promote the understanding of CH3CO3•-driven organic pollutant degradation and are useful for further development of PAA-based AOPs in environmental applications.
Ding P, Ji H, Li P, Liu Q, Wu Y, Guo M, Zhou Z, Gao S, Xu W, Liu W, et al. Visible-light degradation of antibiotics catalyzed by titania/zirconia/graphitic carbon nitride ternary nanocomposites: a combined experimental and theoretical study. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental [Internet]. 2022;300:120633. 访问链接Abstract
Development of low-cost, high-performance photocatalysts for the effective degradation of antibiotics in wastewater is critical for environmental remediation. In this work, titanium dioxide/zirconium dioxide/graphitic carbon nitride (TiO2/ZrO2/g-C3N4) ternary composites are fabricated via a facile hydrothermal procedure, and photocatalytically active towards the degradation of berberine hydrochloride under visible light illumination. The performance is found to increase with the Ti:Zr atomic ratio in the nanocomposites, and obviously enhanced in comparison to that of the binary TiO2/g-C3N4 counterpart, due to the formation of type I/II heterojunctions that help separate the photogenerated electron-hole pairs and produce superoxide and hydroxy radicals. The mechanistic pathways are unraveled by a deliberate integration of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry measurements with theoretical calculations of the condensed Fukui index. Furthermore, the ecotoxicity of the reaction intermediates is examined by utilizing the Toxicity Estimation Software Tool (TEST) and quantitative structure activity relationship calculations (QSAR).
Wu Y, Ji H, Liu Q, Sun Z, Li P, Ding P, Guo M, Yi X, Xu W, Wang C-C, et al. Visible light photocatalytic degradation of sulfanilamide enhanced by Mo doping of BiOBr nanoflowers. Journal of Hazardous Materials [Internet]. 2022;424:127563. 访问链接Abstract
Design of high-efficiency visible light photocatalysts is critical in the degradation of antibiotic pollutants in water, a key step towards environmental remediation. In the present study, Mo-doped BiOBr nanocomposites are prepared hydrothermally at different feed ratios, and display remarkable visible light photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of sulfanilamide, a common antibacterial drug. Among the series, the sample with 2% Mo dopants exhibits the best photocatalytic activity, with a performance 2.3 times better that of undoped BiOBr. This is attributed to Mo doping that narrows the band gap of BiOBr and enhances absorption in the visible region. Additional contributions arise from the unique materials morphology, where the highly exposed (102) crystal planes enrich the photocatalytic active sites, and facilitate the adsorption of sulfanilamide molecules and their eventual attack by free radicals. The reaction mechanism and pathways are then unraveled based on theoretical calculations of the Fukui index and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry measurements of the reaction intermediates and products. Results from this study indicate that deliberate structural engineering based on heteroatom doping and morphological control may serve as an effective strategy in the design of highly active photocatalysts towards antibiotic degradation.