Coastal areas are land–sea transitional zones with complex natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Microorganisms in coastal sediments adapt to such disturbances both individually and as a community. The microbial community structure changes spatially and temporally under environmental stress. In this study, we investigated the microbial community structure in the sediments of Hangzhou Bay, a seriously polluted bay in China. In order to identify the roles and contribution of all microbial taxa, we set thresholds as 0.1% for rare taxa and 1% for abundant taxa, and classified all operational taxonomic units into six exclusive categories based on their abundance. The results showed that the key taxa in differentiating the communities are abundant taxa (AT), conditionally abundant taxa (CAT), and conditionally rare or abundant taxa (CRAT). A large population in conditionally rare taxa (CRT) made this category collectively significant in differentiating the communities. Both bacteria and archaea demonstrated a distance decay pattern of community similarity in the bay, and this pattern was strengthened by rare taxa, CRT and CRAT, but weakened by AT and CAT. This implied that the low abundance taxa were more deterministically distributed, while the high abundance taxa were more ubiquitously distributed.
The community structure of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms is sensitive to various environmental factors, including pollutions. In this study, real-time PCR and 454 pyrosequencing were adopted to investigate the population and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) temporally and spatially in the sediments of an industrial effluent receiving area in the Qiantang River’s estuary, Hangzhou Bay. The abundances of AOA and AOB amoA genes fluctuated in 105–107 gene copies per gram of sediment; the ratio of AOA amoA/AOB amoA ranged in 0.39–5.52. The AOA amoA/archaeal 16S rRNA, AOB amoA/bacterial 16S rRNA, and AOA amoA/AOB amoA were found to positively correlate with NH4+-N concentration of the seawater. Nitrosopumilus cluster and Nitrosomonas-like cluster were the dominant AOA and AOB, respectively. The community structures of both AOA and AOB in the sediments exhibited significant seasonal differences rather than spatial changes in the effluent receiving area. The phylogenetic distribution of AOB in this area was consistent with the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) discharging the effluent but differed from the Qiantang River and other estuaries, which might be an outcome of long-term effluent discharge.
Anthropogenic activities usually contaminate water environments, and have led to the eutrophication of many estuaries and shifts in microbial communities. In this study, the temporal and spatial changes of the microbial community in an industrial effluent receiving area in Hangzhou Bay were investigated by 454 pyrosequencing. The bacterial community showed higher richness and biodiversity than the archaeal community in all sediments. Proteobacteria dominated in the bacterial communities of all the samples; Marine_Group_I and Methanomicrobia were the two dominant archaeal classes in the effluent receiving area. PCoA and ANOVA revealed strong seasonal but minor spatial changes in both bacterial and archaeal communities in the sediments. The seasonal changes of the bacterial community were less significant than those of the archaeal community, which mainly consisted of fluctuations inabundance of a large proportion of longstanding species rather than the appearance and disappearance ofmajor archaeal species. Temperaturewas found to positively correlatewith the dominant bacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and negatively correlate with the dominant archaea,Marine_Group_I; and might be the primary driving force for the seasonal variation of the microbial community.
D-Tyrosine inhibits formation and triggers disassembly of bacterial biofilm and has been proposed for biofouling control applications. This study probes the impact of D-tyrosine in different biofilm formation stages in both G+ and G- bacteria, and reveals a non-monotonic correlation between D-tyrosine concentration and biofilm inhibition effect. In the attachment stage, cell adhesion was studied in a flow chamber, where D-tyrosine caused significant reduction in cell attachment. Biofilms formed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis were characterized by confocal laser scanning microscopy as well as quantitative analysis of cellular biomass and extracellular polymeric substances. D-Tyrosine exhibited strong inhibitive effects on both biofilms with an effective concentration as low as 5 nM; the biofilms responded to D-tyrosine concentration change in a non-monotonic, bi-modal pattern. In addition, D-tyrosine showed notable and different impact on EPS production by G+ and G- bacteria. Extracellular protein was decreased in P. aeruginosa biofilms, but increased in those of B. subtilis. Exopolysaccharides production by P. aeruginosa was increased at low concentrations and reduced at high concentrations while no impact was found in B. subtilis. These results suggest that distinct mechanisms are at play at different D-tyrosine concentrations and they may be species specific. Dosage of D-tyrosine must be carefully controlled for biofouling control applications.