Phthalate esters, commonly used as plasticizers, can be found indoors in the gas phase, in airborne particulate matter, in dust, and on surfaces. The dynamic behavior of phthalates indoors is not fully understood. In this study, time-resolved measurements of airborne phthalate concentrations and associated gas-particle partitioning data were acquired in a normally occupied residence. The vapor pressure and associated gas-particle partitioning of measured phthalates influenced their airborne dynamic behavior. Concentrations of higher vapor pressure phthalates correlated well with indoor temperature, with little discernible influence from direct occupant activity. Conversely, occupant-related behaviors substantially influenced the concentrations and dynamic behavior of a lower vapor pressure compound, diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), mainly through production of particulate matter during cooking events. The proportion of airborne DEHP in the particle phase was experimentally observed to increase under higher particle mass concentrations and lower indoor temperatures in correspondence with theory. Experimental observations indicate that indoor surfaces of the residence are large reservoirs of phthalates. The results also indicate that two key factors influenced by human behavior—temperature and particle mass concentration—cause short-term changes in airborne phthalate concentrations.
Abstract We investigate source characteristics and emission dynamics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a single-family house in California utilizing time- and space-resolved measurements. About 200 VOC signals, corresponding to more than 200 species, were measured during 8 weeks in summer and five in winter. Spatially resolved measurements, along with tracer data, reveal that VOCs in the living space were mainly emitted directly into that space, with minor contributions from the crawlspace, attic, or outdoors. Time-resolved measurements in the living space exhibited baseline levels far above outdoor levels for most VOCs; many compounds also displayed patterns of intermittent short-term enhancements (spikes) well above the indoor baseline. Compounds were categorized as ?high-baseline? or ?spike-dominated? based on indoor-to-outdoor concentration ratio and indoor mean-to-median ratio. Short-term spikes were associated with occupants and their activities, especially cooking. High-baseline compounds indicate continuous indoor emissions from building materials and furnishings. Indoor emission rates for high-baseline species, quantified with 2-hour resolution, exhibited strong temperature dependence and were affected by air-change rates. Decomposition of wooden building materials is suggested as a major source for acetic acid, formic acid, and methanol, which together accounted for \~75% of the total continuous indoor emissions of high-baseline species.
Abstract Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) emitted from building materials, consumer products, and occupant activities alter the composition of air in residences where people spend most of their time. Exposures to specific SVOCs potentially pose risks to human health. However, little is known about the chemical complexity, total burden, and dynamic behavior of SVOCs in residential environments. Furthermore, little is known about the influence of human occupancy on the emissions and fates of SVOCs in residential air. Here, we present the first-ever hourly measurements of airborne SVOCs in a residence during normal occupancy. We employ state-of-the-art semivolatile thermal-desorption aerosol gas chromatography (SV-TAG). Indoor air is shown consistently to contain much higher levels of SVOCs than outdoors, in terms of both abundance and chemical complexity. Time-series data are characterized by temperature-dependent elevated background levels for a broad suite of chemicals, underlining the importance of continuous emissions from static indoor sources. Substantial increases in SVOC concentrations were associated with episodic occupant activities, especially cooking and cleaning. The number of occupants within the residence showed little influence on the total airborne SVOC concentration. Enhanced ventilation was effective in reducing SVOCs in indoor air, but only temporarily; SVOCs recovered to previous levels within hours.
Liu, Y. J. ; Brito, J. ; Dorris, M. R. ; Rivera-Rios, J. C. ; Seco, R. ; Bates, K. H. ; Artaxo, P. ; Duvoisin, S. ; Keutsch, F. N. ; Kim, S. ; et al.Isoprene Photochemistry over the Amazon Rainforest. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America2016, 113, 6125–6130. Link SCI被引用次数：34.