HONO plays a key role in atmospheric chemistry, and while its importance is well-known, the sources of HONO are still not completely understood. As a component of ambient HONO sources, direct emission from vehicles is an area that should be extensively studied. In this study, we determined the HONO emission index for typical gasoline vehicles in the car population of China through a chassis dynamometer with different types of engines (PFI/GDI), starting conditions (cold/warm) and running styles (Beijing cycle). Emission ratios of HONO to nitrogen oxide (NOx) for the Chinese gasoline cars are determined to be in the range of (0.03-0.42) % and an averaged value is about 0.18%, which are comparable to those reported in the few studies available in Europe, the United States and Japan for gasoline cars while smaller for those of the diesel cars. The atmospheric impact of the direct HONO emission from gasoline cars was analyzed for a typical urban site in Beijing, significant contributions of the direct emission toward the HONO budget were found during morning rush hours or twilight conditions to be 8-12%. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Molecular chlorine (Cl-2) and nitryl chloride (GINO(2)) concentrations were measured using chemical ionization mass spectrometry at a rural site over the North China Plain during June 2014. High levels of daytime Cl-2 up to similar to 450 pptv were observed. The average diurnal Cl-2 mixing ratios showed a maximum around noon at pptv. ClNO2 exhibited a strong diurnal variation with early morning maxima reaching ppbv levels and afternoon minima sustained above 60 pptv. A moderate correlation (R-2 = 0.31) between Cl-2 and sulfur dioxide was observed, perhaps indicating a role for power plant emissions in the generation of the observed chlorine. We also observed a strong correlation (R-2 = 0.83) between daytime (10:00-20:00) Cl-2 and ClNO2, which implies that both of them were formed from a similar mechanism. In addition, Cl-2 production is likely associated with a photochemical mechanism as Cl-2 concentrations varied with ozone (O-3) levels. The impact of Cl-2 and ClNO2 as Cl atom sources is investigated using a photochemical box model. We estimated that the produced Cl atoms oxidized slightly more alkanes than OH radicals and enhanced the daily concentrations of peroxy radicals by 15% and the O-3 production rate by 19%.
In 2014, a large, comprehensive field campaign was conducted in the densely populated North China Plain. The measurement site was located in a botanic garden close to the small town Wangdu, without major industry but influenced by regional transportation of air pollution. The loss rate coefficient of atmospheric hydroxyl radicals (OH) was quantified by direct measurements of the OH reactivity. Values ranged between 10 and 20 s(-1) for most of the daytime. Highest values were reached in the late night with maximum values of around 40 s(-1). OH reactants mainly originated from anthropogenic activities as indicated (1) by a good correlation between measured OH reactivity and carbon monoxide (linear correlation coefficient R-2 = 0 : 33) and (2) by a high contribution of nitrogen oxide species to the OH reactivity (up to 30% in the morning). Total OH reactivity was measured by a laser flash photolysis-laser-induced fluorescence instrument (LP-LIF). Measured values can be explained well by measured trace gas concentrations including organic compounds, oxygenated organic compounds, CO and nitrogen oxides. Significant, unexplained OH reactivity was only observed during nights, when biomass burning of agricultural waste occurred on surrounding fields. OH reactivity measurements also allow investigating the chemical OH budget. During this campaign, the OH destruction rate calculated from measured OH reactivity and measured OH concentration was balanced by the sum of OH production from ozone and nitrous acid photolysis and OH regeneration from hydroperoxy radicals within the uncertainty of measurements. However, a tendency for higher OH destruction compared to OH production at lower concentrations of nitric oxide is also observed, consistent with previous findings in field campaigns in China.
Total OH reactivity measurements were conducted on the Peking University campus (Beijing) in August 2013 and in Heshan (Guangdong province) from October to November 2014. The daily median OH reactivity was 20 +/- 11 s(-1) in Beijing and 31 +/- 20 s(-1) in Heshan, respectively. The data in Beijing showed a distinct diurnal pattern with the maxima over 27 s(-1) in the early morning and minima below 16 s(-1) in the afternoon. The diurnal pattern in Heshan was not as evident as in Beijing. Missing reactivity, defined as the difference between measured and calculated OH reactivity, was observed at both sites, with 21% missing reactivity in Beijing and 32% missing reactivity in Heshan. Unmeasured primary species, such as branched alkenes, could contribute to missing reactivity in Beijing, especially during morning rush hours. An observation-based model with the RACM2 (Regional Atmospheric Chemical Mechanism version 2) was used to understand the daytime missing reactivity in Beijing by adding unmeasured oxygenated volatile organic compounds and simulated intermediates of the degradation from primary volatile organic compounds (VOCs). However, the model could not find a convincing explanation for the missing reactivity in Heshan, where the ambient air was found to be more aged, and the missing reactivity was presumably attributed to oxidized species, such as unmeasured aldehydes, acids and dicarbonyls. The ozone production efficiency was 21% higher in Beijing and 30% higher in Heshan when the model was constrained by the measured reactivity, compared to the calculations with measured and modeled species included, indicating the importance of quantifying the OH reactivity for better understanding ozone chemistry.
To better understand the sources, formation, and the transport of air pollutants over North China Plain (NCP), a four-week intensive campaign during summertime in 2014 was conducted in a central NCP rural site. In this study, particle hygroscopicity and volatility measurements were focused to characterize the thermodynamic properties of nanoparticles and gain insight into chemical composition of nanoparticles during the new particle formation (NPF) events. The water-soluble fractions of 30 and 50 nm newly formed particles were respectively 0.64 +/- 0.06 and 0.61 +/- 0.06, indicating that the water-soluble chemical compounds, most likely ammonium sulfate, dominated the condensational growth of newly formed particles over the NCP. Due to containing higher water-soluble fraction, nanoparticles can be activated as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) at lower supersaturation in the atmosphere of NCP in contrast to cleaner environments, such as Melpitz (Central European background) and Hyytiala (boreal forest) during the NPF events. Our observations showed that the NPF and subsequent growth significantly resulted in an enhancement in CCN number concentration. The ranges of enhancement factors of CCN number concentration for supersaturation (SS) = 0.2, 0.4, 0.8% were respectively 1.9-7.0, 2.7-8.4, and 3.6-10.1. After being heated to 300 degrees C, the shrink factors for 30 and 50 nm particles were respectively 0.35 and 038. This indicated that non-volatile compounds could be produced during the growth process of newly formed particles. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Heterogeneous reactions of mineral dust aerosol with trace gases in the atmosphere could directly and indirectly affect tropospheric oxidation capacity, in addition to aerosol composition and physicochemical properties. In this article we provide a comprehensive and critical review of laboratory studies of heterogeneous uptake of OH, NO3, O-3, and their directly related species as well (including HO2, H2O2, HCHO, HONO, and N2O5) by mineral dust particles. The atmospheric importance of heterogeneous uptake as sinks for these species is assessed (i) by comparing their lifetimes with respect to heterogeneous reactions with mineral dust to lifetimes with respect to other major loss processes and (ii) by discussing relevant field and modeling studies. We have also outlined major open questions and challenges in laboratory studies of heterogeneous uptake by mineral dust and discussed research strategies to address them in order to better understand the effects of heterogeneous reactions with mineral dust on tropospheric oxidation capacity.
A comprehensive field campaign was carried out in summer 2014 in Wangdu, located in the North China Plain. A month of continuous OH, HO2 and RO2 measurements was achieved. Observations of radicals by the laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique revealed daily maximum concentrations between (5-15) x 10(6) cm(-3), (3-14) x 10(8) cm(-3) and (3-15) x 10(8) cm 3 for OH, HO2 and RO2, respectively. Measured OH reactivities (inverse OH lifetime) were 10 to 20 s(-1) during daytime. The chemical box model RACM 2, including the Leuven isoprene mechanism (LIM), was used to interpret the observed radical concentrations. As in previous field campaigns in China, modeled and measured OH concentrations agree for NO mixing ratios higher than 1 ppbv, but systematic discrepancies are observed in the afternoon for NO mixing ratios of less than 300 pptv (the model-measurement ratio is between 1.4 and 2 in this case). If additional OH recycling equivalent to 100 pptv NO is assumed, the model is capable of reproducing the observed OH, HO2 and RO2 concentrations for conditions of high volatile organic compound (VOC) and low NOx concentrations. For HO2, good agreement is found between modeled and observed concentrations during day and night. In the case of RO2, the agreement between model calculations and measurements is good in the late afternoon when NO concentrations are below 0.3 ppbv. A significant model underprediction of RO2 by a factor of 3 to 5 is found in the morning at NO concentrations higher than 1 ppbv, which can be explained by a missing RO2 source of 2 ppbvh(-1). As a consequence, the model underpredicts the photochemical net ozone production by 20 ppbv per day, which is a significant portion of the daily integrated ozone production (110 ppbv) derived from the measured HO2 and RO2. The additional RO2 production from the photolysis of ClNO2 and missing reactivity can explain about 10% and 20% of the discrepancy, respectively. The underprediction of the photochemical ozone production at high NOx found in this study is consistent with the results from other field campaigns in urban environments, which underlines the need for better understanding of the peroxy radical chemistry for high NOx conditions.
Simultaneous measurements of meteorological data, trace gases, and volatile organic compounds were made in two regional sites, viz. Backgarden and Kaiping, in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) during summer and autumn, respectively. The strong deviations from the NO-NO2-O-3 Photostationary State, quantified by the leighton ratios, are carefully deduced through a comprehensive data set consist of the high-quality measurements of NO, NO2, O-3 and JNoz as well as the peroxy radical measurements. This is the first report of the Leighton ratio in China, with relatively high recorded values of 2.3 +/- 0.4 (Backgarden) and 3.1 +/- 1.4 (Kaiping), suggesting a strongly oxidising atmosphere in the PRD, typical of the ozone pollution season. A sensitivity analysis using a zero-dimensional chemical box model based on the regional atmospheric chemistry mechanism, version 2 (RACM2) constrained by the experimental measurements, indicated that peroxy radicals account for 70 (Backgarden) and 66% (Kaiping) of the observed positive deviations from the NOx photostationary state (characterized by a Leighton ratio of 1) on average. We consider that the remaining deviations result from neglecting the effects of chlorine chemistry, so We introduced a Cl chemistry module into RACM2, and the modelled results for Cl were as follows: 4.7 x 10(-4) pptv in Backgarden and 1.3 x 10(-3) pptv in Kaiping; these results are lower than the CI concentration derived from the NOx photostationary state. More work is required to confirm the role of additional peroxy radical sources at both high and low NOx regimes, as well as that of the halogen radicals, in perturbing the NO-NOx-O-3 cycle, which would significantly enhance trace gas removal and photochemical ozone production. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A chemical box model was used to study nitrate radical (NO3), dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) and nitryl chloride (C1NO(2)) in a rural site during the Campaign of Air Quality Research in Beijing 2006 (CAREBeijing-2006). The model was based on regional atmospheric chemistry mechanism version 2 (RACM(2)) with the heterogeneous uptake of N2O5 and the simplified chloride radical (C1) chemistry mechanism. A high production rate of NO3 with a mean value of 0.8 ppbv/h and low mixing ratios of NO3 and N2O5 (peak values of 17 pptv and 480 pptv, respectively) existed in this site. Budget analysis showed that NO emission suppressed the NO3 chemistry at the surface layer, the reaction of NO3 with VOCs made a similar contribution to NO3 loss as N2O5 heterogeneous uptake. The NO3 chemistry was predominantly controlled by isoprene, and NO3 oxidation produced organic nitrate with a mean value of 0.06 ppbv/h during nighttime. The organic nitrate production initiated by NO3 was equal to that initiated by OH, implying the importance of nighttime chemistry for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. We confirmed that the N2O5 heterogeneous reaction accounted for nighttime particle NO3 enhancement, with a large day to day variability, and made less of a contribution to NOx loss compared to that of OH reacting with NO2. Additionally, abundant C1NO(2), up to 5.0 ppbv, was formed by N2O5 heterogeneous uptake. C1NO(2) was sustained at a high level until noon in spite of the gradually increasing photolysis of C1NO(2) after sunrise. Chlorine activation caused by N2O5 heterogeneous uptake increased primary ROx formation by 5% and accounted for 8% of the net ozone production enhancement in the morning.
The heterogeneous hydrolysis of dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) is important to understanding the formation of particulate nitrate (pNO(3)(-)). Measurements of N2O5 in the surface layer taken at an urban site in Beijing are presented here. N2O5 was observed with large day-to-day variability. High N2O5 concentrations were determined during pollution episodes with the co-presence of large aerosol loads. The maximum value was 1.3 ppbv (5 s average), associated with an air mass characterized by a high level of O-3. N2O5 uptake coefficients were estimated to be in the range of 0.025-0.072 using the steady-state lifetime method. As a consequence, the nocturnal pNO(3)(-) formation potential by N2O5 heterogeneous uptake was calculated to be 24-85 mu g m(-3) per night and, on average, 57 mu g m(-3) during days with pollution. This was comparable to or even higher than that formed by the partitioning of HNO3. The results highlight that N2O5 heterogeneous hydrolysis is vital in pNO(3)(-) formation in Beijing.
A small and portable incoherent broadband cavityenhanced absorption spectrometer (IBBCEAS) for NO3 and N2O5 measurement has been developed. The instrument features a mechanically aligned non-adjustable optical mounting system, and the novel design of the optical mounting system enables a fast setup and stable operation in field applications. To remove the influence of the strong nonlinear absorption by water vapour, a dynamic reference spectrum through NO titration is used for the spectrum analysis. The wall loss effects of the sample system were extensively studied, and the total transmission efficiencies were determined to be 85 and 55% for N2O5 and NO3, respectively, for our experimental setup. The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated to be 2.4 pptv (1 sigma) and 2.7 pptv (1 sigma) at 1 s intervals for NO3 and N2O5, respectively. The associated uncertainty of the field measurement was estimated to be 19% for NO3 and 22-36% for N2O5 measurements from the uncertainties of transmission efficiency, absorption cross section, effective cavity length, and mirror reflectivity. The instrument was successfully deployed in two comprehensive field campaigns conducted in the winter and summer of 2016 in Beijing. Up to 1.0 ppb NO3 C N2O5 was observed with the presence of high aerosol loadings, which indicates an active night-time chemistry in Beijing.