China's "the Belt and Road Initiative" is a grand vision to promote the collaboration between Asia and Europe mainland countries along the belt and road. Its implementation will promote the further deepening and improving collaboration of China with ASEAN countries. However, the lack of strategic trust between the two sides of the collaboration, and faced with cultural conflicts and other issues. How to promote collaboration between the two sides to break through the bottleneck and implement this initiative? In the past 30 years, ASEAN countries civil society especially non-governmental organizations (NGOs) has grown and produced more and more influence on national governance, and participate in the management and decision-making of ASEAN in the form of Third Track Diplomacy. When both the first and the second track diplomacy failed, focus on the third track, develop and grow with ASEAN countries in collaboration with our non-governmental organizations, will be a breakthrough and an important dynamic that may push the implementation of “the Belt and Road Initiative".
【中文摘要】本文通过纵向系统描述泰国非政府组织兴起与发展的历程、发展的特点和发展过程的影响因素，结合泰国五大类型非政府组织的个案横向说明，举例分析并归纳了泰国非政府组织在泰国社会发展过程中所发挥的重要作用。 第一章结合泰国历史进程，将泰国非政府组织的兴起与发展划分为五个阶段，并总结各阶段的特点。20世纪60年代以前是以“公共服务型”非政府组织为主的萌芽阶段；20世纪60年代-1976年是以“公共服务型+发展型+倡导型”非政府组织为主的兴起阶段；1976年-1979年是以“公共服务型”为主的发展停滞阶段；20世纪80年代是以“公共服务型+发展型+倡导型+代表机构”非政府组织为主的蓬勃发展阶段；20世纪90年代是以非政府组织“网络+网络共同体”为主的网络化和区域化阶段。 第二章采取综合归纳与典型个案描述相结合的方式，所举个案分属泰国五种主要类型的非政府组织，包括：慈善类、农村发展类、环保类、文化类、民主与人权类非政府组织。并对每一类组织进行了综合简评。 第三章是本文的重点，分析归纳了泰国非政府组织在社会发展中五个重要问题领域所发挥的积极作用：1.在泰国农村发展方面，非政府组织主要提供农业服务或农业救济，协助农村寻找发展新道路。2.在防控艾滋病方面，泰国非政府组织发挥了重要的宣传作用，并配合政府与医院的医疗工作、进行艾滋病相关科研。3.在解决泰国青少年问题方面，本文以曼谷五个典型的相关非政府组织为例，通过他们满足青少年10项基本需求的工作计划来说明并归纳出他们的作用。4.在泰国政治改革进程中，非政府组织扮演着重要的推动者角色，突出体现在推动1997新宪法的制定过程中。5.在环境保护方面，泰国非政府组织通过开展一系列环保计划发挥重要作用。而针对政府或企业侵犯到当地百姓生存权与发展权的工程项目，非政府组织会发动百姓进行抗争。 本章在归纳泰国非政府组织发挥的积极作用之外，还提出了对其消极作用的思考。首先，非政府组织代表的民意不一定具有普遍性。其次，泰国非政府组织在某些特定条件下有可能沦为大国博弈的工具。再次，泰国非政府组织的抗争造成部分政府发展项目停滞，也容易被利益集团利用。 总之，当泰国非政府组织所代表的利益与统治阶层的利益相吻合时，多能发挥积极的作用；而当其所代表的利益与统治阶层的利益相左甚至背道而驰时，往往在发挥积极作用的同时，也产生消极影响。
【英文摘要】This dissertation describes the rise and development process, the development characteristics and influencing factors of Thai Non-Governmental Organizations (hereinafter “NGOs”); integrates the individual cases of the five major types of Thai NGOs; illustrates, analyzes and summarizes the important role that Thai NGOs have played in social development of Thailand. In the first chapter, the rise and development process of Thai NGOs is divided into five phases. The germinating phase is before the 1960s and mainly featured with the “Public Service” NGOs; the rising phase is from 1960 to 1976 and mainly featured with the “Public Service”NGOs plus “Development-oriented”NGOs plus “Advocacy-oriented”NGOs; the stagnating phase is from 1976 to 1979 and mainly featured with the “Public Service”NGOs; the vigorously developing phase is during the 1980s and mainly featured with the “Public Service”NGOs plus “Development-oriented”NGOs plus “Advocacy-oriented”NGOs plus NGOs’ representative offices; the net-working and regionalization phase is during the 1990s and mainly featured with the NGOs’ networks and net-working Organizations. In the second chapter, through the adoption of the integrative method of comprehensive summary and typical cases, it exemplifies and comments the five major types of Thai NGOs, including: charity, rural development, environmental protection, culture, democracy and human rights NGOs. The third chapter is the key part of this dissertation. It analyzes and summarizes the positive role that Thai NGOs have played in the five major problematic social development areas: Firstly, in the rural development area of Thailand, NGOs mainly provide agricultural service or agricultural relief, the education and training of farmers, the construction and organization of the people, the R&D and the spread of information and knowledge, as well as the assistance in seeking new ways of rural development. Secondly, in the AIDS prevention and control area, Thai NGOs not only deepen their contact with general people but also deepen the relationship the three high risk AIDS groups, i.e., sailors, alter-culture Thai and frontier habitants, whom are hard for government to reach. Thai NGOs have played very important role in propaganda and AIDS patients-relief, the association with other organizations and assistance in medical treatment with government and hospitals as well as the AIDS related R&D. Third, in solving Thai teenager problem area, this dissertation takes the five typical types of Thai NGOs in Bangkok for example and through their satisfaction of teenager’s ten basic needs, the dissertation illustrates their major roles in teenager life relief, capability and professional skills training, knowledge spread, coordination and shape of the personality of teenagers, R&D, funding etc.. Fourth, in the process of political reform, Thai NGOs play an important role of promoters, embodied in the promotion of forming the 1997 new constitution. In the first stage, they mainly promoted the amendment of article 211 of the 1991 constitution. In the second stage, they actively participated in the election work of “constitution draft committee” members. In the third stage, through the union with the media and the people, they pushed the Congress to pass the 1997 new constitution. Fifth, in environmental protection area, Thai NGOs played the following roles through the carry-out of the following environment protection plans, such as the popularization of environmental protection knowledge, afforestation, forest protection, protection of water resources; coordination and cooperation; cultivation of independent environmental protection abilities of local residents; encourage the development of green mixed farming of villagers, environment R&D and active fundraising. As for the engineering projects that violate the local right to existence and development, NGOs will organize people to fight against government and enterprises. This chapter not only summarizes the positive role of Thai NGOs, but also puts forward its negative effects. First，NGOs representative of public opinion is not necessarily. Second, the Thai NGOs may be reduced to a tool of great power game under certain conditions. Third, the struggle of the Thai NGOs pushes part of government development projects to a standstill, and also easy to be exploited by interest group. Finally, this dissertation draws a conclusion that when Thai NGOs’ interests coincident those of the ruling class’es, they will more able to play an active role. But when their interests different from those of the ruling class’es, they will often play an active role and have a negative impact at the same time.
Key words: Thailand, Non-governmental Organizations: NGOs, Development, Role