Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other flame retardants in the atmosphere and water from Taihu Lake, East China


Air and water samples were collected from Taihu Lake, East China through 2004 and analyzed for 33 congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) and other seven brominated and chlorinated flame retardants. The annual concentration of total atmospheric PBDEs was 220 pg m(-3); BDE-209 was most abundant (average 41% of total PBDEs), followed by BDE-47 (17%) and BDE-28 (15%). The relative abundance of tetra- and tri-BDE congeners (including BDE-47, -28, -49, -66, and -17) instead of BDE-99 indicated that a specific penta-BDE formulation might be produced and/or consumed in this region. The source was confirmed by the analysis of air-water gas exchange, which was nearly at equilibrium in spring and summer but displayed strong volatilization flux in autumn and winter, especially for BDE-28, indicating the potential wastewater discharge of PBDEs into the lake. In addition to PBDEs, hexabromobenzene, 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane, decabromodiphenylethane, and Dechlorane Plus were detected in air samples, with an annual mean concentration of 23 pg m-3 for decabromodiphenylethane, and <4 pg m(-3) for the others. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Times Cited: 88ZHU, TONG/H-6501-2011; Hu, Jianxin/N-3498-201311059129