Liu J*, Aruguete DM, Murayama M, Hochella Jr MF. Influence of size and aggregation on the reactivity of an environmentally and industrially relevant nanomaterial (PbS). Environmental science & technology. 2009;43(21):8178-8183.Abstract
Rarely observed nanoparticle dissolution rate data have been collected and explained for an environmentally and industrially relevant nanomaterial (PbS, the mineral galena) as a function of its particle size and aggregation state using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and solution analysis. Under identical anoxic acidic conditions (pH 3 HCl), it has been determined that the dissolution rate of PbS galena varies by at least 1 order of magnitude simply as a function of particle size, and also due to the aggregation state of the particles (dissolution rates measured are 4.4 × 10−9 mol m−2 s−1 for dispersed 14 nm nanocrystals; 7.7 × 10−10 mol m−2 s−1 for dispersed 3.1 μm microcrystals; and 4.7 × 10−10 mol m−2 s−1 for aggregated 14 nm nanocrystals). The dissolution rate difference between galena microparticles and nanoparticles is due to differences in nanotopography and the crystallographic faces present. Aggregate vs. dispersed dissolution rates are related to transport inhibition in the observed highly confined spaces between densely packed, aggregated nanocrystals, where self-diffusion coefficients of water and ions decrease dramatically. This study shows that factors at the nanometer scale significantly influence the release rate of aqueous, highly toxic and bioavailable Pb in natural or industrial environments during galena dissolution.
Liu J*, Aruguete DM, Jinschek JR, Rimstidt DJ, Hochella MF. The non-oxidative dissolution of galena nanocrystals: Insights into mineral dissolution rates as a function of grain size, shape, and aggregation state. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 2008;72(24):5984-5996.
Lu A, Li Y, Lv M, Wang C, Yang L, Liu J, Wang Y, Wong K-H, Wong P-K. Photocatalytic oxidation of methyl orange by natural V-bearing rutile under visible light. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. 2007;91(19):1849-1855.
Liu J, Aruguete D, Jinschek J, Hochella MF. TEM investigation of the non-oxidative dissolution of galena (PbS) nanoparticles in a hydrochloric acid solution. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta. 2007;71(15):A589.
鲁安怀, 郭延军, 刘娟, 刘菲, 王长秋, 李宁, 李巧荣. 天然含钒金红石: 一种用于降解卤代有机污染物的光催化剂. 科学通报. 2004;49(22):2350-2353.PKU 
Lu A, Liu J, Zhao D, Guo Y, Li Q, Li N. Photocatalysis of V-bearing rutile on degradation of halohydrocarbons. Catalysis today. 2004;90(3):337-342.
Lu A, Guo Y, Liu J, Liu F, Wang C, Li N, Li Q. Photocatalytic effect of nature and modified V-bearing rutile. Chinese science bulletin. 2004;49(21):2284-2287.
李巧荣, 鲁安怀, 李宁, 刘娟, 郭延军. 天然含钒金红石降解卤代烃实验研究. 岩石矿物学杂志. 2003;22(4):345-348.PKU 
刘娟, 鲁安怀, 郭延军, 李宁, 李巧荣, 郑佳. 天然含钒金红石加热, 淬火及电子辐射改性实验研究. 岩石矿物学杂志. 2003;22(4):339-344.PKU 
李宁. 天然含钒金红石矿物学特征研究及其光催化活性初探. 2003.
Juan LIU, An_huai LU, Yan_jun GUO, Ning LI, Qiao_rong LI, Jia ZHENG. An experimental study on the modification of natural vanadiferous rutile by heating, quenching and electron irradiation [J]. Acta Petrologica Et Mineralogica. 2003;4:003.
Ning LI, An_huai LU, Shan QIN, He_jin WANG, Qiao_rong LI, Juan LIU. Mineralogical characteristics of natural vanadiferous rutile gestating photocatalystic activity [J]. Acta Petrologica Et Mineralogica. 2003;4:002.