Background: More than 90% of the world's population lives in areas where outdoor air pollution levels exceed health-based limits. In these areas, individuals may use indoor air filtration, often on a sporadic basis, in their residences to reduce exposure to respirable particles (PM2.5). Whether this intervention can lead to improvements in health outcomes has not been evaluated.Methods: Seventy non-smoking healthy adults, aged 19 to 26 years, received both true and sham indoor air filtration in a double-blinded randomized crossover study. Each filtration session was approximately 13 h long. True and sham filtration sessions were separated by a two-week washout interval. The study was carried out in a suburb of Shanghai.Results: During the study period, outdoor PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 18.6 to 106.9 mu g/m(3), which overlapped with levels measured in Western Europe and North America. Compared to sham filtration, true filtration on average decreased indoor PM2.5 concentration by 72.4% to 10.0 mu g/m(3) and particle number concentration by 59.2% to 2316/cm(3). For lung function measured immediately after the end of filtration, true filtration significantly lowered airway impedance at 5 Hz (Z(5)) by 7.1% [95% CI: 2.4%, 11.9%], airway resistance at 5 Hz (R-5) by 7.4% [95% CI: 2.4%, 12.5%], and small airway resistance (R-5-R-20) by 20.3% [95% CI: 0.1%, 40.5%], reflecting improved airway mechanics especially for the small airways. However, no significant improvements for spirometry indicators (FEV1, FVC) were observed. True filtration also significantly lowered von Willebrand factor (VWF) by 26.9% [95% CI: 7.3%, 46.4%] 24 h after the end of filtration, indicating reduced risk for thrombosis. Stratified analysis in male and female participants showed that true filtration significantly decreased pulse pressure by 3.3% [95% CI: 0.8%, 7.4%] in females, and significantly reduced VWF by 42.4% [95% CI: 17.4%, 67.4%] and interleukin-6 by 22.6% [95% CI: 0.4%, 44.9%] in males. Effect modification analyses indicated that filtration effects in male and female participants were not significantly different.Conclusion: A single overnight residential air filtration, capable of reducing indoor particle concentrations substantially, can lead to improved airway mechanics and reduced thrombosis risk.
High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration in combination with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) can be a cost-effective approach to reducing indoor particulate exposure, but ESPs produce ozone. The health effect of combined ESP-HEPA filtration has not been examined. We conducted an intervention study in 89 volunteers. At baseline, the air-handling units of offices and residences for all subjects were comprised of coarse, ESP, and HEPA filtration. During the 5-week long intervention, the subjects were split into 2 groups, 1 with just the ESP removed and the other with both the ESP and HEPA removed. Each subject was measured for cardiopulmonary risk indicators once at baseline, twice during the intervention, and once 2 weeks after baseline conditions were restored. Measured indoor and outdoor PM2.5 and ozone concentrations, coupled with time-activity data, were used to calculate exposures. Removal of HEPA filters increased 24-hour mean PM2.5 exposure by 38 (95% CI: 31, 45) mug/m(3) . Removal of ESPs decreased 24-hour mean ozone exposure by 2.2 (2.0, 2.5) ppb. No biomarkers were significantly associated with HEPA filter removal. In contrast, ESP removal was associated with a -16.1% (-21.5%, -10.4%) change in plasma-soluble P-selectin and a -3.0% (-5.1%, -0.8%) change in systolic blood pressure, suggesting reduced cardiovascular risks.
Background: Oxidative stress is involved in thoracic diseases and health responses to air pollution. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a well-established marker of oxidative stress, but it may be present in unconjugated and conjugated forms. To our knowledge, no studies have conducted a systemic evaluation of both free MDA (unconjugated MDA) and total MDA (the sum of both unconjugated and conjugated MDA) across various types of human biospecimens.Methods: Free MDA and total MDA were simultaneously measured in a range of human biospecimens, including nasal fluid (N=158), saliva (N=158), exhaled breath condensate (N=40), serum (N=232), and urine (N=429). All samples were analyzed using an HPLC-fluorescence method with high sensitivity and specificity. Due to the right skewed distribution of free MDA and total MDA, we performed natural-log transformation before subsequent statistical analyses. The relationship between the natural log of free and total MDA was evaluated by R-2 of simple linear regression. T test was used for comparisons of means between two groups. One-way analysis of variance was used in combination with Tukey's test to compare the natural log of the ratio of free MDA to total MDA across various types of biospecimens.Results: For exhaled breath condensate, serum, urine, nasal fluid and saliva samples, the R-2 between free and total MDA were 0.61, 0.22, 0.59, 0.47 and 0.06, respectively; the medians of the free MDA to total MDA ratio were 48.1%, 17.4%, 9.8%, 5.1% and 3.0%, respectively; the free MDA to total MDA ratio in EBC > serum > urine > nasal fluid > saliva (P < 0.001 for pairwise comparisons).Conclusions: For exhaled breath condensate and urine samples, using either free or total MDA can provide information regarding the level of oxidative stress; however, that is not the case for serum, nasal fluid, and saliva given the low correlations between free and total MDA.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous air pollutants associated with negative impacts on growth, development and behavior in children. Source-specific biological markers of PAH exposure are needed for targeting interventions to protect children. Nitro-derivatives of PAH can act as markers of exposure to diesel exhaust, gasoline exhaust, or general combustion sources. Using a novel HPLC-APCI-MS/MS detection method, we examined four hemoglobin (Hb) adducts of nitro-PAH metabolites and the Hb adduct of a benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) metabolite in 22 umbilical cord blood samples. The samples were collected from a birth cohort with comprehensive data on prenatal PAH exposure, including prenatal personal air monitoring and DNA adducts in maternal and umbilical cord blood. Using non-parametric analyses, heat maps, and principal component analysis (PCA), we analyzed the relationship between the five Hb adducts and previous PAH measurements, with each measurement representing a different duration of exposure. We found that Hb adducts derived from several diesel-related nitro-PAHs (2-nitrofluorene and 1-nitropyrene) were significantly correlated (r = 0.77, p
OBJECTIVES: We assessed relationships between indoor black carbon (BC) exposure and urinary oxidative stress biomarkers, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA), in participants with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: Eighty-two participants completed in-home air sampling for one week prior to providing urine samples up to four times in a year. Weekly indoor and daily outdoor concentrations were used to estimate indoor daily lags and moving averages. There were no reported in-home BC sources, thus indoor levels closely represented outdoor BC infiltration. Mixed effects regression models with a random intercept for each participant were used to assess relationships between indoor BC and 8-OHdG and MDA, adjusting for age, race, BMI, diabetes, heart disease, season, time of urine collection, urine creatinine, and outdoor humidity and temperature. RESULTS: There were positive effects of BC on 8-OHdG and MDA, with the greatest effect the day before urine collection (6.9% increase; 95% CI 0.9-13.3%, per interquartile range: 0.22mug/m(3)) for 8-OHdG and 1 to 4days before collection (8.3% increase; 95% CI 0.03-17.3% per IQR) for MDA. Results were similar in models adjusting for PM2.5 not associated with BC and NO2 (10.4% increase, 95% CI: 3.5-17.9 for 8-OHdG; 8.1% increase, 95% CI: -1.1-18.1 for MDA). Effects on 8-OHdG were greater in obese participants. CONCLUSIONS: We found positive associations between BC exposure and 8-OHdG and MDA, in which associations with 8-OHdG were stronger in obese participants. These results suggest that exposure to low levels of traffic-related pollution results in lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage in individuals with COPD.
BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to pollution can lead to an increase in the rate of decline of lung function, especially in older individuals and in those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), whereas shorter-term exposure at higher pollution levels has been implicated in causing excess deaths from ischaemic heart disease and exacerbations of COPD. We aimed to assess the effects on respiratory and cardiovascular responses of walking down a busy street with high levels of pollution compared with walking in a traffic-free area with lower pollution levels in older adults. METHODS: In this randomised, crossover study, we recruited men and women aged 60 years and older with angiographically proven stable ischaemic heart disease or stage 2 Global initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) COPD who had been clinically stable for 6 months, and age-matched healthy volunteers. Individuals with ischaemic heart disease or COPD were recruited from existing databases or outpatient respiratory and cardiology clinics at the Royal Brompton & Harefield NHS Foundation Trust and age-matched healthy volunteers using advertising and existing databases. All participants had abstained from smoking for at least 12 months and medications were taken as recommended by participants' doctors during the study. Participants were randomly assigned by drawing numbered disks at random from a bag to do a 2 h walk either along a commercial street in London (Oxford Street) or in an urban park (Hyde Park). Baseline measurements of participants were taken before the walk in the hospital laboratory. During each walk session, black carbon, particulate matter (PM) concentrations, ultrafine particles, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations were measured. FINDINGS: Between October, 2012, and June, 2014, we screened 135 participants, of whom 40 healthy volunteers, 40 individuals with COPD, and 39 with ischaemic heart disease were recruited. Concentrations of black carbon, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, and ultrafine particles were higher on Oxford Street than in Hyde Park. Participants with COPD reported more cough (odds ratio [OR] 1.95, 95% CI 0.96-3.95; p<0.1), sputum (3.15, 1.39-7.13; p<0.05), shortness of breath (1.86, 0.97-3.57; p<0.1), and wheeze (4.00, 1.52-10.50; p<0.05) after walking down Oxford Street compared with Hyde Park. In all participants, irrespective of their disease status, walking in Hyde Park led to an increase in lung function (forced expiratory volume in the first second [FEV1] and forced vital capacity [FVC]) and a decrease in pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index up to 26 h after the walk. By contrast, these beneficial responses were attenuated after walking on Oxford Street. In participants with COPD, a reduction in FEV1 and FVC, and an increase in R5-20 were associated with an increase in during-walk exposure to NO2, ultrafine particles and PM2.5, and an increase in PWV and augmentation index with NO2 and ultrafine particles. In healthy volunteers, PWV and augmentation index were associated both with black carbon and ultrafine particles. INTERPRETATION: Short-term exposure to traffic pollution prevents the beneficial cardiopulmonary effects of walking in people with COPD, ischaemic heart disease, and those free from chronic cardiopulmonary diseases. Medication use might reduce the adverse effects of air pollution in individuals with ischaemic heart disease. Policies should aim to control ambient levels of air pollution along busy streets in view of these negative health effects. FUNDING: British Heart Foundation.