Conventional wisdom has long held that a composite particle behaves just like an ordinary Newtonian particle. In this paper, we derive the effective dynamics of a type-I Wigner crystal of composite particles directly from its microscopic wave function. It indicates that the composite particles are subjected to a Berry curvature in the momentum space as well as an emergent dissipationless viscosity. While the dissipationless viscosity is the Chern-Simons field counterpart for the Wigner crystal, the Berry curvature is a feature not presented in the conventional composite fermion theory. Hence, contrary to general belief, composite particles follow the more general Sundaram-Niu dynamics instead of the ordinary Newtonian one. We show that the presence of the Berry curvature is an inevitable feature for a dynamics conforming to the dipole picture of composite particles and Kohn's theorem. Based on the dynamics, we determine the dispersions of magnetophonon excitations numerically. We find an emergent magnetoroton mode which signifies the composite-particle nature of the Wigner crystal. It occurs at frequencies much lower than the magnetic cyclotron frequency and has a vanishing oscillator strength in the long-wavelength limit.
The many-body ground state wave function of a fractional Chern insulator (FCI) can be constructed by mapping a fractional quantum Hall state to a FCI state through a substitution of the Bloch state of the flat Chern band for the magnetic Bloch state of the Landau level. There is a gauge freedom in choosing the single particle Bloch basis of the flat Chern band. Instead of considering only one form of interaction in FCI when choosing the gauge as done in previous works, we determine the optimal gauges for FCIs with different forms of interaction, including a short-range interaction, the Coulomb interaction, and an interpolation between them, by applying the variational principle proposed by Zhang et al. [Phys. Rev. B 93, 165129 (2016)]. We find that the optimal gauge strongly depends on the form of interaction. It contradicts with the common belief that the wave function of FCI is not sensitive to the interaction. In comparing the optimal gauge with the previous gauges proposed by Qi [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 126803 (2011)] and Wu et al. [Phys. Rev. B 86, 085129 (2012)], we find Wu et al.'s gauge is close to the optimal one when the interaction is a certain mixture of the Coulomb interaction and the short-range interaction, while Qi's gauge is qualitatively different from the optimal gauge in all the cases.
We study the effects of infrared radiation on a two-dimensional Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer superconductor coupled with a normal metal substrate through a tunneling barrier. The phase transition is analyzed by inspecting the stability of the system against perturbations of pairing potentials. We find an oscillating gap phase with a frequency not directly related to the radiation frequency, but instead resulting from the asymmetry of electron density of states of the system as well as the tunneling amplitude. When such a superconductor is in contact with another superconductor, gives rise to an unusual alternating Josephson current .