Radiation-Induced Oscillating Gap States of Nonequilibrium Two-Dimensional Superconductors


We study the effects of infrared radiation on a two-dimensional Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer superconductor coupled with a normal metal substrate through a tunneling barrier. The phase transition is analyzed by inspecting the stability of the system against perturbations of pairing potentials. We find an oscillating gap phase with a frequency not directly related to the radiation frequency, but instead resulting from the asymmetry of electron density of states of the system as well as the tunneling amplitude. When such a superconductor is in contact with another superconductor, gives rise to an unusual alternating Josephson current .