Thermionic electron sources are scaled down to the microscale on a chip and batch fabricated on 4-in silicon wafers by utilizing microfabrication technologies and exploiting carbon nanotubes as microscopic filaments of thermionic electron emission. The microfabricated on-chip thermionic electron sources not only satisfy the metrics of compactness and ease of batch fabrication, but also exhibit the advantages of good performance reproducibility (±6.9% variation over 100 test cycles under a driven voltage of 3.5 V) and high emission stability (fluctuation < 5% for emission current level of ≈10−8 A over 900 s) under a relatively low vacuum condition (10−4–10−2 Pa). Furthermore, to extract electrons and tune emission current, an extraction gate with a mesh is monolithically integrated with the thermionic electron sources using anodic bonding technique. The integrated electron sources exhibit a strong gate controllability and a considerable electron transmission ratio of ≈76% through the extraction gate. All these results make our devices a promising type of on-chip electron source in the applications of miniature vacuum electronic devices/systems.